CONCEPT MAPPING Create a concept map that identifes the three main cell shapes of bacteria and describes the nutritional modes of bacteria. Include the following terms in your concept map: prokaryotes, bacilli, cocci, spirilla, chemotrophic, heterotrophic, endotoxin, exotoxin, Gram-negative, and Gram-positive.

Critical Thinking

19. Applying Information Scientists have only recently discovered fossilized prokaryotes. Explain why these fossils may have taken so long to discover.

20. Predicting Results Clostridium perfringens, the soil-dwelling bacterium that causes gas gangrene, is an obligate anaerobe. Using this information, predict which would be more likely to become infected with C. perfringens: a deep puncture wound or a surface cut. Explain the reason for your inference.

21. Recognizing Relationships Penicillin works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to polymerize the peptidoglycan cell wall. Given this fact, explain why Gram-positive bacteria are more susceptible to the effects of penicillin than Gramnegative bacteria are.

22. Analyzing Graphics Examine the photograph below, which shows bacteria that have been treated with a Gram stain. Would you hypothesize that these bacteria produce endotoxins? Explain your answer.

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