CONCEPT MAPPING Use the following terms to create a concept map that describes the characteristics of jawless, cartilaginous, and bony fishes: bony fishes, gills, cartilage, operculum, and countercurrent flow.

Critical Thinking

21. Applying Information Sometimes fish develop a swim bladder disorder when they are overfed and food displaces the swim bladder. How might displacement of the swim bladder by food impair the function of this organ?

22. Analyzing Research A famous study showed that a shark could locate and capture a stationary fish buried in the sand at the bottom of its tank. When the fish was enclosed in electrical insulation and then buried, however, the shark could not locate it. From this information can you conclude that the shark is using only its electrical sense to locate the buried fish?

23. Recognizing Relationships Cod fishes lay eggs near the surface of the water. In contrast, the male largemouth bass scoops out a nest in a river bottom and waits for a female to deposit her eggs. What hypothesis would you make regarding the relative number of cod and bass eggs?

24. Analyzing Graphics Study the chart below, which shows the excreted ion concentration of a fish as it travels from one body of water to another. Is the fish traveling from fresh water to salt water or salt water to fresh water?

Effect of Environment on Ion Excretion

Distance traveled

Standardized Test Preparation

DIRECTIONS: Choose the letter of the answer choice that best answers the question.

1. Which of the following is true of sharks and rays?

A. They have lungs.

B. They have placoid scales.

C. Most species live in fresh water.

D. They do not have a lateral line system.

2. Which of the following is not involved in control-ing buoyancy?

F. a fat-filled liver

G. the rectal gland

H. the swim bladder

J. continuous swimming

3. What is the function of the lateral line system?

A. initiates migration

B. detects vibrations

C. acts as camouflage

D. keeps fish moving in a straight line

4. What do sharks use claspers for?

F. startle other fish

G. increase maneuverability

H. transfer sperm while mating J. hold on to prey while feeding

INTERPRETING GRAPHICS: The table below shows the salinity of fresh water, salt water, and the body fluids of fish. Use the table to answer the questions that follow.

Salinity of Water and Fish Body Fluids

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