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• Meiosis is a process of nuclear division that reduces the number of chromosomes in new cells to half the number in the original cell. Meiosis produces gametes.

• Cells undergoing meiosis divide twice. Diploid cells that divide meiotically result in four haploid cells rather than two diploid cells as in mitosis.

• Meiosis I includes prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, and telophase I. Crossing-over during prophase I results in genetic recombination.

• Meiosis II includes prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, and telophase II. Four new haploid cells result.

• Spermatogenesis is the process by which sperm cells are produced. Oogenesis is the process that produces egg cells.

• Sexual reproduction is the formation of offspring through the union of a sperm and an egg. Offspring produced by sexual reproduction are genetically different from the parents.

Vocabulary synapsis (p. 161) tetrad (p. 161) crossing-over (p. 162)

genetic recombination (p. 162) independent assortment (p. 162)

spermatogenesis (p. 164) oogenesis (p. 164)

polar body (p. 164) sexual reproduction (p. 164)

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