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Contrast oviparity with viviparity.

an animal is an ectotherm? Why or why not?

Word Roots and Origins ovoviviparous from the Latin ovum, meaning "egg," vivus, meaning "alive," and parere, meaning "to bring forth"

figure 41-12

Reptiles generally do not provide care for their young, but the hatchlings are usually able to fend for themselves as soon as they emerge from the shell. Crocodiles and alligators, however, care for their young for up to two years. The female crocodile in the photograph is transporting her baby in her mouth.

objectives

• Compare the anatomy of turtles with that of other reptiles.

• Describe the structure that allows crocodilians to swallow prey under water.

• Explain three antipredator defenses of lizards.

• Describe two ways snakes subdue their prey.

• Identify two reasons that tuataras are rarely seen.

vocabulary carapace plastron autotomy constrictor elapid viper

Modern Reptiles

Modern reptiles are classified into four orders: Chelonia, Crocodilia, Squamata, and Rhynchocephalia. As different as two species of reptile—such as a turtle and a snake—appear to be, all species of modern reptiles share the following characteristics: an amniotic egg; internal fertilization of eggs; dry, scaly skin; respiration through lungs; and ectothermic metabolism.

figure 41-13

(a) The Galápagos tortoise, Geochelone gigantops, is protected from predators by its high domed carapace. (b) The green sea turtle, Chelonia mydas, is streamlined for life in the sea.

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