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through pathogens in air or on objects (from coughs or sneezes)

Amebic dysentery

Entamoeba histolytica (protist)

contaminated food and water

Athlete's foot

Tinea (fungus)

contact with contaminated surfaces, person-to-person contact

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personal items

Scientists have used Koch's postulates to identify thousands of pathogens. Many human diseases are caused by bacteria, viruses, protists, fungi, and invertebrates. Pathogens can spread to humans in five main ways—through air, food, water, person-to-person contact, and the bites of animals. Table 47-1 lists examples of pathogens that cause different human diseases and the means by which each is commonly transmitted.

figure 47-2

The passages of the respiratory system are lined with cells that are covered with beating cilia (purplish strands). Pathogens (bluish circles) that become trapped in mucus secreted by these cells are swept upward, away from the lungs. (5,325x)

figure 47-2

The passages of the respiratory system are lined with cells that are covered with beating cilia (purplish strands). Pathogens (bluish circles) that become trapped in mucus secreted by these cells are swept upward, away from the lungs. (5,325x)

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