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College—bachelor's degree from a college with an accredited athletic training curriculum, including course work in biology; a master's degree for some jobs; and certification. Skills—patience, good organizational skills, and ability to work as a member of a team.

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figure 45-10

These light micrographs show the three types of muscle tissue. Skeletal muscle tissue (a) has a striped appearance when viewed under a microscope (430x). Smooth muscle tissue (b) is found in the digestive tract, the uterus, the bladder, and the blood vessels (400x). Cardiac muscle tissue (c) is found only in the heart (270x).

figure 45-10

These light micrographs show the three types of muscle tissue. Skeletal muscle tissue (a) has a striped appearance when viewed under a microscope (430x). Smooth muscle tissue (b) is found in the digestive tract, the uterus, the bladder, and the blood vessels (400x). Cardiac muscle tissue (c) is found only in the heart (270x).

(a) SKELETAL MUSCLE TISSUE

Smooth muscle forms the walls of the stomach, intestines, blood vessels, and other internal organs. Individual smooth muscle cells are spindle-shaped, have a single nucleus, and interlace to form sheets, as shown in Figure 45-10b. Notice that smooth muscle lacks the striations found in skeletal muscle tissue. Smooth muscle fibers are surrounded by connective tissue, but the connective tissue does not unite to form tendons as it does in skeletal muscles. Because most of its movements cannot be consciously controlled, smooth muscle is referred to as involuntary muscle.

Cardiac muscle, shown in Figure 45-10c, makes up the walls of the heart. Cardiac muscle shares some characteristics with both skeletal muscle and smooth muscle. As with skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle tissue is striated; as with smooth muscle, it is involuntary and each cell has one nucleus.

(b) SMOOTH MUSCLE TISSUE (c) CARDIAC MUSCLE TISSUE

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