ensure a plant's survival.


• Explain why stems differ in shape and growth.

• Describe the structure of stems.

• Distinguish between primary growth and secondary growth in stems.

• Discuss the three main functions of stems.

vocabulary node internode bud bud scale pith wood heartwood sapwood bark springwood summerwood annual ring source sink translocation pressure-flow hypothesis transpiration cohesion-tension theory figure 29-8

Stems provide a supporting framework for leaves. Some plants produce stems that are modified for other functions. (a) A strawberry plant has stolons, which are horizontal, above-ground stems that form new plants. (b) The potato plant has tubers, which are enlarged, short, underground stems used for storing starch. (c) A cactus is called a succulent because of its fleshy, water-storing stems.

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