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19. Compare an acid to a base in terms of the hydroxide ion concentration.

CONCEPT MAPPING Use the following terms to create a concept map that shows how the properties of water help it rise in plants: water, hydrogen bonds, cohesion, adhesion, capillarity, and plants.

cRITICAL tHINKING

21 Analyzing Concepts In nature, the elements oxygen and hydrogen are usually found as gases with the formulas O2 and H2. Why? Are they compounds? Are they molecules?

22. Analyzing Data The table below shows melting and boiling points at normal pressure for five different elements or compounds. Above the boiling point, a compound or element exists as a gas. Between the melting point and the boiling point, a compound or element exists as a liquid. Below the melting point, a compound or element exists as a solid. Use the table to answer the following questions:

a. At 20oC and under normal pressure conditions, which substances exist as solids? as liquids? as gases?

b. Which substance exists as a liquid over the broadest range of temperature?

c. Which substance exists as a liquid over the narrowest range of temperature?

d. Which one of the substances are you least likely to encounter as a gas?

Melting and Boiling Points at Normal Pressure

(°C)

Aluminum

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