13. Explain how biological molecules indicate related-ness between species.

14. Summarize the examples of convergent and divergent evolution seen in Caribbean lizards.

Describe an example of coevolution.

Explain why antibiotics are not consistently effective against infections of bacteria.

CONCEPT MAPPING Use the following terms to create a concept map: struggle to survive, theory, inheritable variation, Darwin, overpopulation, natural selection, and successful reproduction.

Critical Thinking

18. Analyzing Concepts Could a characteristic that is not controlled by heredity be subject to natural selection? Explain your answer.

19. Making Predictions Suppose that an island in the Pacific Ocean was just formed by a volcano. Describe a possible scenario for the kinds of species that could be found on this island over the next million years.

20. Interpreting Graphics The graph below shows the diversity among different groups of animals over time. Of the four eras listed, the Cenozoic era is the most recent. The changing width of the bar for each group reflects the changing number of known subgroups over geologic time. Use the graph to answer the following questions:

a. Which group most recently evolved?

b. Which group is or was the most diverse? the least diverse?

c. Which group diversified rapidly soon after it first appeared?

d. Which group(s) became extinct?

Animal Diversity


Mammals Roundworms Trilobites


Mammals Roundworms Trilobites


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