1. For each pair of terms, explain how the meanings of the terms differ.

a. systemic circulation and pulmonary circulation b. amplexus and metamorphosis c. pulmonary respiration and cutaneous respiration

2. Use the following key terms in the same sentence: duodenum, mesentery and ileum.

3. Explain the relationship between preadaptation and adaptation.

4. Word Roots and Origins The word columella comes from the Latin columna, which means "pillar." Using this information, list two characteristics of this amphibian ear bone.

Understanding Key Concepts

5. Discuss the preadaptiations important in the evolution of amphibians.

6. Identify two characteristics that indicate that amphibians are descendants of ancient lobe-finned fish.

7. Name five major characteristics of amphibians.

8. Identify the order to which each of the following belong: frogs, salamanders, caecilians.

9. Explain how some species of frogs survive in desert environments even though they do not have watertight skin.

10. Relate the adaptations in the amphibian skeleton to the change in gravity with life on land.

11. Outline the route of blood flow through the body of a frog, beginning with the right atrium.

12. Determine the next step for air within the oral cavity of a frog when it closes its nostrils and raises the mouth floor.

13. Trace the digestive process as food passes through a frog's digestive system.

14. Explain how an amphibian's nervous system is similar to that of a bony fish.

15. Explain how male frogs attract the attention of female frogs during mating season.

16. Describe the reproductive system of a frog.

17. Discuss the life cycle of a frog.

18. Contrast the physical characteristics of a larval frog to those of an adult frog.

19. Describe two different examples of parental care found in frogs.

CONCEPT MAPPING Use the following terms to create a concept map that shows the methods of respiration in frogs: frogs, skin, mouth floor, body wall muscles, nostrils, lungs, air pressure, oral cavity, environment.

Critical Thinking

21. Inferring Relationships Charles Darwin noticed that frogs and toads are often absent from oceanic islands, such as the Galápagos Islands, even though they may be found on the nearby mainland. Darwin conducted some experiments that showed that frogs' eggs cannot tolerate exposure to salt water. What hypothesis do you think Darwin was trying to test?

22. Recognizing Relationships In the brains of amphibians, the largest parts are the olfactory lobes and the optic lobes, the centers of smell and sight. This is very important to amphibians in hunting prey and avoiding predators. Why else is the capacity for hearing important?

23. Recognizing Relationships The female gastric-brooding frogs of Australia did not produce stomach acid or digestive enzymes while brooding their young in their stomachs until the tadpoles completed metamorphosis and left. If the mother frog did not eat during this period, from where did she get her energy?

24. Analyzing Graphics When tadpoles undergo metamorphosis, their bodies begin to produce an enzyme that converts ammonia into urea. The time that a tadpole takes to produce this enzyme varies among species. In the graph below, the rate of enzyme production is shown for a species that inhabits a desert-like environment and a species that inhabits a forest environment. Which curve represents which frog? Explain.

Enzyme Production in Two Frog Species

Enzyme Production in Two Frog Species

0 Standardized Test Preparation

DIRECTIONS: Choose the letter that best answers the question or completes the sentence.

1. The forelimbs of vertebrates evolved from which structures in lobe-finned fishes?

A. anal fin

B. pelvic fins

C. pectoral fins

D. pectoral girdle

2. Amphibians must lay eggs in water primarily for what reason?

F. The eggs are not laid in nests.

G. The eggs need oxygen from water.

H. The eggs need protection from predators. J. The eggs do not have multicellular membranes and a shell.

3. Metamorphosis must take place before amphibians are able to do what?

A. swim

B. live on land

C. respire with gills

D. feed themselves

INTERPRETING GRAPHICS: The figure below shows a longitudinal section, dorsal view, of a frog heart. Use the figure below to answer question 4.

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