• Most producers are photosynthetic and make carbohydrates by using energy from the sun.

• Consumers obtain energy by eating other organisms and include herbivores, omnivores, carnivores, detritivores, and decomposers.

• Decomposers feed on dead organisms and wastes, which releases the nutrients back into the environment.

• A single pathway of energy transfer is a food chain. A network showing all paths of energy transfer is a food web.

• Ecosystems contain only a few trophic levels because there is a low rate of energy transfer between each level.

Vocabulary producer (p. 366) chemosynthesis (p. 366) gross primary productivity (p. 366)

biomass (p. 366) net primary productivity (p. 366) consumer (p. 367)

herbivore (p. 367) carnivore (p. 367) omnivore (p. 367) detritivore (p. 367)

decomposer (p. 367) trophic level (p. 368) food chain (p. 368) food web (p. 368)

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