1. In your own words, write a definition for the term environmental science.

2. Use the following terms in the same sentence:

a. geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere b. biodiversity, species diversity, and genetic diversity

3. For each pair of terms, explain how the meanings of the terms differ.

a. keystone species and bioindicator b. conservation biology and restoration biology

4. Word Roots and Origins The word conservation is derived from the Latin conservare, which means "to keep" or "to preserve". Using this information, explain why the term conservation is a good name for the act it represents.

Understanding Key Concepts

5. Define the biosphere in relation to Earth's three major layers.

6. Explain Earth's greenhouse effect.

7. Identify three major consequences of air pollution.

8. Explain how the chemical ozone can be both beneficial and harmful to living things.

9. Explain why scientists must distinguish between a correlation and a cause-and-effect relationship.

10. Describe the biological magnification of DDT.

11. Identify the three primary causes of modern extinctions.

12. Give examples of several ways that people could value a single species.

13. Define an ecological footprint.

14. Summarize the efforts to save the whooping crane from extinction.

15. Identify three regions of the United States that are parts of biodiversity hotspots.

16. Justify the need for a conservation plan for the Everglades ecosystem.

17. List four things that individuals could do to reduce their ecological footprint.

18. Write a short report that explains BMLOGV ® why efficient use of groundwater is important and that summarizes several ways that people can work to reduce the depletion and pollution of groundwater.


CONCEPT MAPPING Use the following terms to create a concept map that describes two ways in which human activities have an impact on the entire planet: pollution, atmosphere, carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, greenhouse effect, ozone layer, and climate.

Critical Thinking

20. Analyzing Concepts What do environmental scientists mean by interdependence? Give an example of interdependence from this chapter.

21. Applying Information Suggest some species interactions that are likely to be influenced by global warming.

22. Inferring Relationships The formation of the ozone layer depended on the presence of oxygen in the atmosphere. Drawing on what you have learned about the history of life, explain how organisms effected and were affected by the ozone layer as it was first forming.

23. Predicting Patterns Predict how future human population growth could affect the biosphere.

24. Evaluating Methods Humans need clean, fresh water. Environmental scientists think that fresh water may become a limiting factor for human population growth. Explain how you could estimate Earth's carrying capacity for humans based on the availability of fresh water. What information would you need to make this estimate? How might technological advances change your estimate?

25. Recognizing Relationships As part of the global treaty to eliminate CFCs, developed countries are contributing to a fund to help developing countries buy CFC substitutes. What benefits do developed countries receive from this investment?

26. Forming Reasoned Opinions After considering Table 22-2, what other ideas could you add to the list? Explain your reasoning.

27. Interpreting Graphics Using the illustration below, explain the greenhouse effect. In your explanation, refer to the numbered parts.

Ms/ Standardized Test Preparation

DIRECTIONS: Choose the letter of the answer choice that best answers the question.

1. Which of the following is the term for the parts of Earth where water is located?

A. biosphere

B. geosphere

C. atmosphere

D. hydrosphere

2. What is the term for the natural ability of Earth's atmosphere to trap energy from the sun?

F. global warming

G. ozone depletion

H. greenhouse effect

J. biological magnification

3. What does Earth's ozone layer shield its inhabitants from?

A. solar heating

B. meteor impacts

C. ozone depletion

D. ultraviolet radiation

4. Which of the following groups of organisms contains the largest estimated number of species?

F. birds

G. plants

H. insects

J. mammals

5. What term describes a measure of the number of species in an area?

A. species richness

B. species evenness

C. bioindicator species

D. biological magnification

INTERPRETING GRAPHICS: The graph below shows trends in two global measurements over several decades. Use the graph to answer the question that follows.


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