Immune Response

An immune response is a two-part assault on a pathogen. Both parts, the cell-mediated immune response and the humoral immune response, occur at the same time and require a specialized lymphocyte called a helper T cell. Steps O, ©, and G of Figure 47-7 on the next page show how an immune response is initiated. The first step occurs when a macrophage engulfs a pathogen. The macrophage then displays fragments of the pathogen's antigens on the surface of its own cell membrane. When the macrophage binds to a helper T cell with a receptor matching this antigen, the macrophage releases a cytokine called interleukin-1 (in-tuhr-LOO-kin). Cytokines are proteins that can affect the behavior of other immune cells. The release of interleukin-1 by the macrophage activates more helper T cells, which then release a second cytokine, interleukin-2.

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