Il1

Viral antigen

Virus

Helper T cells

^^ Interleukin-2 stimulates the further division of helper T cells and activates cytotoxic T cells.

^^ Cytotoxic T cells destroy infected body cells.

^^ Interleukin-2 stimulates the further division of helper T cells and activates cytotoxic T cells.

^^ Cytotoxic T cells destroy infected body cells.

9 x Infected body cell

Cytotoxic T cells

figure 47-7

The immune response is a two-part assault on a pathogen: the cellmediated immune response and the humoral immune response. Both responses occur at the same time and are triggered when a macrophage engulfs a pathogen, thus activating helper T cells (steps O through Q). The cell-mediated immune response is shown in steps O and Q, and the humoral immune response is shown in steps Q through Q on the next page.

One other type of T cell that plays a part in cell-mediated immunity is suppressor Tcells. Suppressor T cells are not well understood but are thought to help shut down the immune response after the pathogen has been cleared from the body. The cell-mediated immune response is shown in steps Q and G in Figure 47-7 above.

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