• Outline the flow of genetic information in cells from DNA to protein.

• Compare the structure of RNA with that of DNA.

• Summarize the process of transcription.

• Describe the importance of the genetic code.

• Compare the role of mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA in translation.

• Identify the importance of learning about the human genome.

vocabulary ribonucleic acid (RNA) transcription translation protein synthesis ribose messenger RNA (mRNA)

ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

transfer RNA (tRNA)

RNA polymerase promoter termination signal genetic code codon anticodon genome figure 10-12

DNA contains the instructions for building a protein. DNA transfers the instructions to an RNA molecule in a process called transcription. The RNA moves out into the cytoplasm, where its instructions are read and the protein is assembled in a process called translation.

Protein Synthesis

Characteristics such as hair color are largely determined by genetic factors. But how does inheriting a particular form of a gene result in the appearance of a specific hair color? The structure of DNA helps explain how genes function in making proteins that determine traits in organisms.

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