Lhw

ichthyosaurs, 821, 821f ileum, 807, 807f, 990 immigration, 321, 385 immune system, 956-977 barriers (nonspecific defenses), 958, 958f cell-mediated immune response, 963-964, 964f-965f in HIV infection, 488, 490-491,

491/; 970-972, 971/ immune response, 67/

962-966, 964/-965/ 966/ inflammatory response, 959, 959/

problems of, 968-969, 968/, 969t immunity, 966 immunofluorescence, 68/ implantation, 1057, 1057/ imprinting, 886/, 891, 891/ inactivated virus vaccines, 492 inbreeding, 389 incomplete dominance, 184, 184/; 244

incomplete metamorphosis, 748, 748/

incurrent siphons, 709 independent assortment, 162,

177-178, 178/ independent variables, 15 indeterminate cleavage, 666 indirect development, 659, 659/ indoleacetic acid (IAA), 631-632,

632t inducers, 219

infectious diseases, 957. See also diseases inferior vena cava, 937 inflammatory response, 959, 959/ influenza virus, 484/, 488, 491/, 966

ingestion, 652 inhalants, 1023t inheritance, 234-253. See also genetics of acquired characteristics, 298

of behavior, 887, 887/ chromosome mapping, 238, 238/

complex characters, 243 genetic counseling, 247 linked genes, 238 multiple alleles, 244, 244/ origin of, 287-288, 287/ patterns of, 242 pedigrees, 241, 241/ polygenic, 242, 242/ sex-influenced traits, 245 sex-linked genes, 237, 237/ innate behaviors, 888, 888/ insectivores, 871, 871/ insects, 741-759 biological control of, 476, 749 threatened or extinct species, 443t insertion (muscle), 921, 921/ insertion mutations, 240 inspiration, 949, 949/ insulin, 58, 259/, 260, 1039, 1042 integral proteins, 78, 78/ integumentary system, 924-926,

925/ 926/. See also skin integuments, 612, 614, 614/ 660 intercalary meristems, 586, 586t interdependence, 359-360, 360/ interferons, 960 interleukins, 963-964, 964/ intermediate filaments, 84, 84t intermediate hosts, 692, 692f,

694, 694f internal fertilization, 786. See also fertilization internal respiration, 946. See also respiratory systems Internet, science on, 20 interneurons, 1013-1014 internodes, 593, 593f interphase, 155, 155f interspecific competition, 401, 407

intertidal zone, 422f, 423, 423f intestinal fluid, pH of, 44f intestines, 789, 790f, 990-991,

990f, 991 f introns, 220, 221f 462 inversions, 239 invertebrates annelids, 658, 712f 713-716, 714f 716f 720-721, 1084 arthropods, 723-739, 725f characteristics, 654, 657-659,

659 f, 1084 chordates, 654, 665, 768-770,

768f, 769f, 770f, 1084 cnidarians, 676-681, 676f, 677f, 680f ctenophores, 682, 682f, 1084 echinoderms, 665, 761-767, 761f 765f 767f, 774-775, 1084

flatworms, 689-694, 690f, 692f,

702-703, 1084 insects, 741-759, 743t mollusks, 705-711, 706f, 707f,

7071, 709f, 710f, 711f rotifers, 665, 688f, 698, 698f, 1084

roundworms, 598, 695-697,

696f, 697f sponges, 673-675, 674f 675f 1084

threatened or extinct species, 443t involuntary muscles, 918

iodine, 983t, 1036, 1077t ion channels, 1006-1009, 1008f ionic bonds, 34, 34f, 37

ionization, 43

ions, 34, 34f iridium, 821

iris, 1018, 1019f iron, 5911, 983, 983t, 1076t islands, 370, 370f 406, 406f islets of Langerhans, 1030f 1039,

1039f 1039t isomers, 55, 55f isopods, 727, 727f isotonic environments, 99-100,

99t, 100f 783 isotopes, 32, 32f, 283-284, 284t

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