figure 3-2

Carbon atoms can form single (a), double (b), or triple (c) bonds. Organic molecules can have many different shapes and patterns of bonding.

Quick Lab

Demonstrating Polarity

Materials disposable gloves; lab apron; safety goggles; 3 test tubes; test-tube rack; 6 mL each of cooking oil, ethanol, and water


1. Put on disposable gloves, a lab apron, and safety goggles, and then label the test tubes "A," "B," and "C."

2. In test tube A, put 3 mL of water and 3 mL of oil.

3. In test tube B, put 3 mL of ethanol and 3 mL of oil.

4. In test tube C, put 3 mL of water and 3 mL of ethanol.

5. With your middle finger, flick each test tube to mix the contents, and allow each to sit for 10-15 minutes. Record your observations.

Analysis Polar molecules are soluble in water. How does this activity demonstrate polarity of molecules that contain the —OH group?

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