Txr

G0/G1/G2 phases, 155, 155/ galactose, 55, 55/ Galápagos Islands, 276/, 277/, 296/, 299, 301, 402, 648/, 830/

gallbladder, 789, 790/, 989, 989/ gametangia, 510, 530-531, 530/ gametes, 155, 163-164, 163/ 164/;

663, 663/ gametocytes, 519, 519/ gametophytes, 565-566, 566/

614-615,614/ ganglia, 706, 706/, 715 gannets, 383, 383/ gases, 35

gas exchange. See also respiratory systems in animals, 658, 660 in fishes, 785, 791, 791/ in humans, 948-949, 948/ in plants, 602, 602/ gasohol, 551 gastric ceca, 746, 746/ gastric fluid, 988 gastric pits, 987, 987/ gastrin, 1040 gastrodermis, 676, 676/ gastrointestinal tract, 985, 985/.

See also digestive systems gastropods, 707-708, 707/, 708/ gastrovascular cavity, 676, 676/ gastrula, 664, 664/ 1064 gastrulation, 664, 664/ Gause, George F., 401 gel electrophoresis, 257, 257/

264, 264/ 274-275 gemmules, 675

gene expression, 216-233. See also protein synthesis control of, 217-222 DNA chips for tracking, 224, 224/

in eukaryotes, 220-222, 221/ 222/

in prokaryotes, 217-219, 218/ 219/

tumor development, 225, 225/ gene pool, 318-320, 319/ generalists, 365 generative cells, 615, 615/ genes, 9 homeotic, 223, 224/ 662 linked, 238

mutations, 202-203, 203/, 228,

239-240, 239/ 240/, 321 oncogenes, 225-226, 225/ 491 patents on, 265

regulator, 219, 219/ sex-linked, 237, 237/ structural, 218, 218/ structure of eukaryotic, 220 transposons, 179, 262 gene technology, 255-275 applications of, 260, 266-270,

266i 267/ 268/-269Z bioinformatics, 210, 263 cloning, 227, 259, 259/ 268,

268/-269Z 662 DNA identification, 255-258,

256/ 257/ 258/ 260 ethical issues, 270 gel electrophoresis in, 257, 257/ 264, 264/ 274-275 human genome mapping,

261-263,261/ 262t microarrays, 254/ 264 patents and, 265 proteomics, 264, 264/ recombinant DNA, 258-259,

259/ viruses in, 488 yeast plasmids in, 535 gene therapy, 203, 248, 267, 267/ genetically modified crops (GM

crops), 269-270 genetic bottlenecks, 389, 389/ 438

genetic code, 207, 207/ genetic counseling, 247 genetic disorders breast cancer, 143, 143/ 2461 chromosome number and, 2531 colorblindness, 244, 244/ 1018 cystic fibrosis, 241, 241/ 246/

248, 267, 267/ detection of, 245-246, 245/ erythroblastosis fetalis, 944 hemophilia, 246/ 942 Huntington's disease, 245, 2461 Leigh's syndrome, 141 Marfan syndrome, 2461 Pearson's syndrome, 141 phenylketonuria (PKU), 246/ 247

polygenic inheritance, 242, 242/ sickle cell anemia, 2461 Tay-Sachs disease, 246/ treating, 247-248 from X-linked genes, 238/ genetic diversity, 389, 389/ 438 genetic drift, 322, 322/ genetic engineering. See gene technology genetic equilibrium, 320-325,

320/ 322/ 323/ 325/ genetic recombination, 162 genetics, 172-191. See also chromosomes; inheritance; population genetics behavior and, 887, 887/ chromosome mapping, 238, 238/

codominance, 184, 244 effects of gene location, 237-238, 237/ 238/ genotype and phenotype, 180, 180/

homozygous vs. heterozygous, 181-186,182/ 183/ 184/ 185/ 186/ incomplete dominance, 184,

184/ 244, 244/ lateral transfers, 348 law of independent assortment, 177-178, 178/ law of segregation, 177 Mendel's experiments and results, 174-178, 174/ 175/ 176/ 177/ 178/ molecular, 178 multiple alleles, 244, 244/ onset of puberty, 1038 probability in, 181 sex determination, 236, 236/ transformation, 194 genetic screening, 245-246, 245/ genome, 217

in animal and plant species, 262, 2621 future applications, 210,

263-264 Human Genome Project, 227, 261-265, 261/ 262/ 264/ 471

genotype, 180, 180/ 182-184,

184/ 244 genotypic ratios, 183, 191 genus, 339, 339/ geographic isolation, 327-328, 327/

geologic time scelle, 302, 1085/ geology, uniformitarianism in,

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