Critical Thinking

21. Analyzing Concepts The right and left sides of a bird's heart are completely separated. Thus, the oxygenated blood is never mixed with the deoxygenated blood. Why is this complete separation in the heart necessary?

22. Interpreting Graphics Look at the diagram below of a bird's skeleton. Identify the following structures: pelvic girdle, furcula, sternum, femur, humerus, ulna, and tibiotarsus.

23. Applying Information Why is binocular vision important to some birds?

24. Inferring Relationships Cowbirds lay their eggs in the nests of other birds. The young cowbirds hatch slightly earlier than the other birds do, and the cowbird hatchlings are slightly larger. Why might these characteristics be advantageous for the young cowbirds?

25. Making Comparisons Although many species of temperate-zone birds migrate to the tropics to escape winter, some species remain behind. What benefits might these birds gain from not migrating?

26. Justifying Conclusions In terms of evolutionary adaptations, explain why the young of some birds, such as ducks and quail, are precocial.

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