Chapter Review

uSING vOCABULARY

1. For each pair of terms, explain how the meanings of the terms differ.

a. oxidation and reduction b. reactants and products c. acid and base

2. Explain the relationship between electrons, neutrons, and protons.

3. Choose the term that does not belong in the following group, and explain why it does not belong: element, compound, chemical bonds, and adhesion.

4. Word Roots and Origins The term catalyst comes from the Greek katalysis, meaning "dissolution." Give reasons that this term is appropriate in describing the function of enzymes.

Understanding Key Concepts

5. Differentiate between the mass and the weight of an object.

6. Name the subatomic particles that are found in the nucleus of an atom.

7. Describe the arrangement within energy levels of the seven electrons of an atom of nitrogen.

8. Describe how compounds affect an atom's stability.

9. Differentiate between covalent and ionic bonds.

10. Compare the motion and spacing of the molecules in a solid to the motion and spacing of the molecules in a gas.

11. Identify the reactants and the products in the following chemical reaction.

12. Explain the relationship between enzymes and activation energy.

13. Explain oxidation and reduction in terms of electron transfer and charge.

14. Describe the structure of a water molecule.

15. Outline what happens when water ionizes.

16. Describe how water behaves at its surface and the role hydrogen bonding plays in this behavior.

17. Identify the solute(s) and solvent(s) in a cup of instant coffee with sugar.

18. Name two ions that are the products of the dissociation of water.

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