Chapter Review

uSING vOCABULARY

1. For each pair of terms, explain how the meanings of the terms differ.

a. homozygous and heterozygous b. law of segregation and law of independent assortment c. genetics and heredity

2. Use the following terms in the same sentence: pollination, self-pollination, and cross-pollination.

3. For each pair of terms, explain the relationship between the terms.

a. genotype and phenotype b. monohybrid cross and dihybrid cross c. allele and trait

4. Word Roots and Origins The word dominant comes from the Latin dominari, which means "to rule." Using this information, explain why the term dominant is a good name for the genetic phenomenon that the term describes.

Understanding Key Concepts

5. Relate why Mendel began his experiments by allowing pea plants to self-pollinate for several generations.

6. Explain the difference between dominant and recessive traits.

7. Describe the differences between the P generation, the Fj generation, and the F2 generation.

8. Relate why it is not necessary, when the dominant and recessive traits are known, to use the term homozygous when referring to the genotype of an individual that has a recessive phenotype.

9. state the difference between a monohybrid cross and a dihybrid cross.

10. Propose how crossing-over during meiosis might affect the segregation of genes that are on the same chromosome.

11. Relate the events of meiosis to the law of segregation.

12. Summarize how a gardener who has a pea plant that produces round seeds can determine whether the plant is homozygous or heterozygous for the allele that determines seed texture. (In pea plants, round seed texture is dominant over wrinkled seed texture.)

13. Relate probability to the study of genetics.

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