Chapter Review


1. For each pair of terms, explain the relationship between the terms.

a. botany and agriculture b. fertilizer and pesticide c. fruit and vegetable d. aspirin and quinine

2. Choose the term that does not belong in the following group, and explain why it does not belong: legume, nut, and root crop.

3. Use the following terms in the same sentence: gasohol, plant ecology, and cereal.

4. Word Roots and Origins The word herb is derived from the Latin herba, which means "grass." Using this information, explain why the term herb is a good name for the plants that the term describes.

Understanding Key Concepts

5. Describe how people have acted as selecting agents in the evolution of food plants.

6. Distinguish between a fruit and a vegetable.

7. State two negative impacts of modern agricultural methods.

8. List three nonfood, nonmedicinal uses of plants.

9. Name three types of plants that provide fiber used in clothing.

10. List five medicines that are derived from plants.

11. Describe how ornamental trees improve the environment.

12. Identify one inorganic plant nutrient, and describe the role of plants in recycling this nutrient.

13. Explain how plants and microbes interact in mutually beneficial ways.

14. Explain why plant materials entering the country are screened by government inspectors.

15. Name three addictive plant products.

16. XX CONCEPT MAPPING Use the following

□ □ □ terms to create a concept map that illustrates plant ecology: humans, pollination, plants, animals, hay fever, mycorrhizae, bees and microbes.

Critical Thinking

17. Predicting Results If all animals disappeared from the Earth, what would the positive and negative effects be on plants?

18. Analyzing Information During the rainy season in the Brazilian rain forest, the rivers flood the land. Many fish from these rivers then swim among the land plants and eat their fruit. How might this intermingling of fish and plants help the plants?

19. Analyzing Concepts Suppose a friend asks you why corn, which he or she considers to be a vegetable, is listed as a cereal crop in the encyclopedia. To answer this question, write a paragraph that explains why corn is a cereal crop, agriculturally, and why corn is a fruit, botanically. Identify other examples of foods that are classified as vegetables or grains but also are fruits.

20. Relating Concepts How did artificial selection by humans play a role in the origin of agricultural crops? How is artificial selection similar to natural selection?

21. Interpreting Graphics Many athletes consume carbohydrates before a competition to increase their endurance. The table below shows a variety of legumes and grains that can be purchased at a grocery store. Compare their prices and nutritional composition. Determine which food is the least expensive source of carbohydrates.

Common Legumes and Grains

Per serving


Package size


Serving (g)


Total fat (g)

Total carbohydrate (g)

Total protein (g)

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