Chapter Review

uSING vOCABULARY

Critical Thinking

1. For each pair of terms, explain how the meanings of the terms differ.

a. mesothorax and metathorax b. labrum and labium c. nymph and pupa d. worker bee and queen bee e. royal jelly and queen factor

2. Explain the relationship between altruistic behavior and kin selection.

3. Choose the term that does not belong in the following group, and explain why it does not belong: egg, larva, pupa, and nymph.

4. Word Roots and Origins The word gastric is derived from the Greek gaster, which means "stomach." The word cecum is from the Latin caecus, which means "blind." Using this information, explain why the term gastric cecum is a good name for the structure that the term describes.

Understanding Key Concepts

5. Identify three characteristics that entomologists use to divide insects into orders.

6. State how the small size of insects has contributed to the biological success of insects.

7. Explain why insect wings are not homologous to the wings of birds and bats.

8. Describe the function of spiracles in insects.

9. Define tympanum, and identify where it is located on a grasshopper.

10. Explain the function of warning coloration.

11. Describe how crickets produce sounds, and explain the functions of these sounds.

12. Define innate behavior, and give an example.

13. List the three types of individuals that make up a honeybee society.

14. Compare the round dance with the waggle dance of honeybees.

15. Explain how altruistic behavior may have been selected in honeybees.

16. JX CONCEPT MAPPING Use the following □ □ □ terms to create a concept map that sequences the stages of complete metamorphosis: older larva, pupal exoskeleton, eggs, pupa, adult, and young larva.

17. Relating Structure and Function Insects and crustaceans both belong to the phylum Arthropoda and share many characteristics. Recall that the largest crustacean, the Japanese spider crab, has a leg span of 4 m. In contrast, the largest insects, such as the atlas moth, have a wingspan of only about 25 cm. Identify some possible reasons that the largest crustaceans are so much bigger than the largest insects.

18. Applying Information What characteristics may have helped insects survive the major climatic changes that led to the extinction of the dinosaurs and many other species about

65 million years ago?

19. Interpreting Graphics The graph below shows changes in size of two insect populations over a six-year period. One population is considered a pest, and the other is considered a beneficial species. At year 4, a pesticide is applied. Describe the relationship between the two species before year 4. How did the populations change after the application of the pesticide? Propose an explanation for the changes that occurred in the two populations after the use of pesticides.

Changes in Two Insect Populations

I Insect pest Beneficial species

e

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