Chapter Review

uSING vOCABULARY

1. For each pair of terms, explain how the meanings of the terms differ.

a. microspore and megaspore b. pollination and double fertilization c. sepal and petal

2. For each pair of terms, explain the relationship between the terms.

a. homospory and heterospory b. polar nuclei and embryo sac c. integument and micropyle

3. Use the following terms in the same sentence: dormancy, plumule, radicle, and seed coat.

4. Word Roots and Origins The word carpel is derived from the Greek word karpos, which means "fruit." Using this information, explain why the term carpel is a good name for the structure that the term describes.

Understanding Key Concepts

5. Name the sexual reproductive structures in a moss life cycle, and describe the function of each.

6. Identify the dominant stage in the life cycle of a fern.

7. Summarize the adaptation that allows gym-nosperms to sexually reproduce in the absence of environmental moisture.

8. Explain how heterospory can be an advantage over homospory.

9. Describe the roles of the parts of a flower that do not participate directly in reproduction.

10. Describe the roles of the parts of a flower that do participate directly in reproduction.

11. Distinguish between embryo sac formation and pollen grain formation.

12. Draw a diagram showing the events and plant structures involved in angiosperm pollination.

13. Distinguish the process of fertilization in gym-nosperms from the process of fertilization in flowering plants.

14. Identify one example of a plant structure that is an adaptation for fruit or seed dispersal.

15. Describe the two characteristics used for classifying fruits.

16. Explain the advantage of the hypocotyl hook that the embryos of some seeds form as the plant emerges after germination.

17. Explain why asexual reproduction can be an advantage for plants that are well-adapted to their environment.

18. Compare two methods of plant propagation used by humans.

19. JX CONCEPT MAPPING Use the following □ □ □ terms to create a concept map that describes male reproductive structures in flowering plants: anther, generative cell, microspore mother cell, stamen, microspore, pollen grain, and tube cell.

Critical Thinking

20. Recognizing Relationships In many flowers with both stamens and pistils, the stigma is located well above the anthers. What might be the value of such an arrangement?

21. Analyzing Information Following the self-pollination of some plants, the pollen tubes die before reaching ovules. What is the significance of this event?

22. Justifying Conclusions If you were to discover a new type of rose, would you use vegetative parts or seeds to propagate the rose and produce large numbers of identical plants? Justify your answer.

23. Interpreting Graphics In the photograph below, the houseplant on the left shows a Sansevieria trifasciata, which has yellow-edged leaves. A section of the leaf, or a leaf cutting, can be used to produce new plants. However, as shown on the right side of the photograph, only shoots with all-green leaves and no yellow edges will form. How do you explain this?

Ms/ Standardized Test Preparation

DIRECTIONS: Choose the letter of the answer choice that best answers the question.

1. The production of a single type of spore is a characteristic of the life cycles of which kinds of plants?

A. mosses and most ferns

B. most ferns and gymnosperms

C. mosses and most gymnosperms

D. mosses, most ferns, and gymnosperms

2. Why is sexual reproduction in gymnosperms and other seed plants independent of seasonal rains?

F. These plants grow only near streams and rivers.

G. Pollinators or wind carry the sperm to the eggs.

H. Fertilization occurs inside structures within the spores.

J. Fertilization always involves eggs and sperm of the same plant.

INTERPRETING GRAPHICS: The illustration below shows the four concentric whorls of a typical flower. Use this illustration to answer the question that follows.

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