Chapter Review


1. For each pair of terms, explain how the meanings of the terms differ.

a. atrium and ventricle b. caudal fin and anal fin c. internal fertilization and external fertilization d. operculum and gill

2. Use the following key terms in the same sentence: cerebrum, optic tectum, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata.

3. Explain the relationship between olfactory bulbs and lateral line system.

4. Word Roots and Origins The word Actinopterygii comes from the Greek actinos, meaning "ray," and pteryx, meaning "wing" or "fin." Using this information, explain why Actinopterygii is a good name for these fish.

Understanding Key Concepts

5. List the characteristics that would be found in a typical vertebrate.

6. Identify the class of vertebrates to which each of the following organisms belong: goldfish, sand sharks, pigeons, dogs, Pacific lamprey, bullfrog.

7. Name the characteristics that distinguish early vertebrates from modern vertebrates.

8. Describe two major changes in fish anatomy over millions of years.

9. Evaluate the relationship between fishes' body form and function in an aquatic environment.

10. Identify the structures that are involved in sensory systems in fishes.

11. Name one characteristic of early chordates that distinguishes hagfishes from lampreys.

12. Describe the key characteristics that distinguish cartilaginous fishes.

13. Contrast the reproductive strategy of lampreys with the reproductive strategy of sharks.

14. Identify the characteristics that distinguish bony fishes from cartilaginous fishes.

15. Explain the differences between the two main groups of bony fishes.

16. state how the caudal, dorsal, pectoral, and pelvic fins function in helping fish swim.

17. Explain how the heart and gills function in fish.

18. Propose a possible explanation for the evolution of primitive lungs into swim bladders.

19. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of internal fertilization and spawning.

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