1. For each pair of terms, explain how the meanings of the terms differ.
a. radial symmetry and bilateral symmetry b. open circulatory system and closed circulatory system c. vertebrate and invertebrate d. spiral cleavage and radial cleavage
2. Explain the relationship between cell specialization and differentiation.
3. Choose the term that does not belong in the following group, and explain why it does not belong: notochord, cephalization, dorsal nerve cord, and radial symmetry.
4. Word Roots and Origins The word blastopore comes from the Greek blastos, which means "bud," and poros, which means "passage." Using this information, explain why the term blastopore is a good name for the structure it describes.
Understanding Key Concepts
5. Describe each of the four characteristics that define animals.
6. Explain how neural tissue and muscle tissue work together in an animal's body to allow the animal to respond to its environment.
7. Describe the probable changes that early colonial flagellates underwent as they evolved into the first animals.
8. List the four features common to all chordates at some time in their life. What has happened to two of these features in an adult human?
9. Summarize what happened to the position of the body with respect to the legs as vertebrates adapted to life on land.
11. Infer the relationship between two phyla that are represented on the same branch of a phyloge-netic tree. Which features are used to determine the relationship?
12. Identify the most probable type of movement that an organism with bilateral symmetry would exhibit.
13. Contrast segmentation in invertebrates with segmentation in vertebrates.
14. Sequence the development of the nervous system from cnidarians to mammals.
15. Identify the structure that the archenteron becomes in a developing animal.
16. Name two body parts formed by each of the following: endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm.
17. Identify how a closed circulatory system differs from an open circulatory system.
18. Compare schizocoely with enterocoely.
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