1. For each pair of terms, explain how the meanings of the terms differ.
a. nucleolus and nucleus b. cell wall and cell membrane c. ribosomes and endoplasmic reticulum d. chromatin and chromosomes e. mitochondria and chloroplast
2. Explain the relationship between cilia and flagella.
3. Use the following terms in the same sentence: rough ER, smooth ER, Golgi apparatus, vesicle, and ribosome.
4. Word Roots and Origins The word root eu means "true," pro means "before," and kary means "nucleus." Using this information, explain what the terms eukaryote and prokaryote suggest about their evolution.
Understanding Key Concepts
5. Name the scientist that first observed nonliving cells.
6. Discuss the roles of Schleiden, Schwann, and Virchow in the development of the cell theory.
7. Analyze the three parts of the cell theory.
8. Identify the characteristics shared by all living organisms.
9. State the relationship between cell shape and cell function.
10. Identify the factors that limit the growth of cells.
11. Draw the three major parts of a eukaryotic cell.
12. Compare the structure of a prokaryotic cell with that of a eukaryotic cell.
13. Sequence the relationship between organs, cells, organ systems, and tissues.
14. Explain why a cell membrane is called a fluid mosaic.
15. Describe the parts of a nucleus.
16. Propose why muscle cells have more mitochondria than other kinds of eukaryotic cells have.
17. Describe the role of ribosomes in cells.
18. Compare the functions of the Golgi apparatus with those of the ER.
19. Discuss the structure and function of vesicles.
20. Describe the structures that make up the cytoskeleton.
21. Summarize the differences between plant cells and animal cells.
22. Propose how the cell wall helps give support to a plant cell.
23. Compare primary and secondary cell walls.
24. Predict what would happen to a plant with a genetic defect that produced no central vacuole.
26. JX CONCEPT MAPPING Use the following □ □ □ terms to create a concept map that compares animal cells with plant cells: cell membrane, cell wall, central vacuole, chloroplasts, and mitochondria.
27. Interpreting Graphics Answer the following questions based on the figure below.
a. Identify the structures labeled A in the micrograph.
b. Explain the significance of the shape of these structures.
28. Applying Concepts Using your knowledge of the relationship between surface area and volume, explain why small pieces of a food cook faster than larger pieces of the same food.
29. Making Comparisons The coils of a radiator provide a large surface area from which heat is radiated into a room. Which cell organelles have a structure similar to that of a radiator? How is their structure related to their function?
30. Evaluating Differences Explain why colonial organisms are not considered multicellular. What features make colonial organisms different from multicellular organisms?
31. Applying Information Write a
BI0L0C1I « report summarizing the roles of different types of cell-membrane proteins in the preservation of body organs donated for transplant.
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