Freeways May Provide An Effect Of Geographical Isolation

uSING vOCABULARY

1. Use each of the following terms in a separate sentence: bell curve and gene flow.

2. For each pair of terms, explain how the meanings of the terms differ.

a. allele frequency and phenotype frequency b. stabilizing selection and disruptive selection c. immigration and emigration d. geographic isolation and reproductive isolation e. allopatric speciation and sympatric speciation f. punctuated equilibrium and gradualism

3. Use the following terms in the same sentence: nonrandom mating, assortative mating, and sexual selection.

4. Use the following terms in the same sentence: genetic equilibrium, gene pool, and speciation.

5. Word Roots and Origins The word disrupt is derived from the Latin disruptus, which means "to break apart." Using this information, explain the term disruptive selection.

Understanding Key Concepts

6. Compare the three main causes of variation in the genotypes of organisms.

7. Identify the five conditions that are necessary for Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium.

8. Identify the five conditions that may cause evolution to occur in a population.

9. Describe how immigration and emigration can alter allele frequencies in a population.

10. List examples of how mating could be nonrandom in a population.

11. Contrast natural selection with sexual selection.

12. Identify which type of selection is happening when a population's bell curve narrows over time.

13. Explain why prezygotic isolating mechanisms have an advantage over postzygotic isolating mechanisms.

14. Relate the size of a population to the influence of genetic drift on the population's gene pool.

15. Compare the effects of stabilizing selection, disruptive selection, and directional selection.

16. Model a situation that might cause the geographic isolation of a subgroup of a population of fish living in a large river.

17. Explain why the biological species concept cannot be used to identify fossil organisms.

18. Identify the type of isolating mechanism in the following scenario: Where populations of two related species of frogs overlap geographically, their mating calls differ more than they do where the species don't overlap.

19. Summarize the hypothesis of punctuated equilibrium as it relates to the rate of speciation.

20. XX CONCEPT MAPPING Use the following □ □ □ terms to create a concept map of how new species can form: natural selection, allele frequency, geographic isolation, reproductive isolation, and speciation.

Critical Thinking

21. Relating Concepts Explain the relationship between evolution and natural selection.

22. Forming Hypotheses Propose a hypothesis about how pollutants in the environment could influence the evolution of its inhabitants.

23. Drawing Conclusions Freeways may provide an effective geographic isolating mechanism for some slow-moving animals. Are such artificial barriers likely to result in complete speciation?

24. Applying Information The common biological definition of species states that a species is a group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring in nature. A mule is the offspring of a horse and a donkey. Mules are always sterile. By the definition above, do a horse and a donkey belong to the same species? Explain your answer.

25. Interpreting Graphics From the illustration of four o'clock flowers shown below, calculate the frequency of the R and r alleles, and state the phenotype frequency.

Ms/ Standardized Test Preparation

DIRECTIONS: Choose the letter of the answer choice that best answers the question.

1. What is the term for the total genetic information in a population?

A. gene pool

B. allele frequency

C. distribution of traits

D. phenotype frequency

2. Saint Bernards and Chihuahuas (two breeds of domestic dogs) cannot normally mate because they differ so much in size. Thus, they are repro-ductively isolated to some extent. What type of isolating mechanism is operating in this case?

F. artificial

G. prezygotic

H. postzygotic J. geographic

3. How do mutations affect genetic equilibrium?

A. Mutations cause emigration.

B. Mutations cause immigration.

C. Mutations introduce new alleles.

D. Mutations maintain genotype frequency.

INTERPRETING GRAPHICS: The illustration below shows two contrasting models for rates of speciation. Use the illustration to answer the questions that follow.

Morphological change Model A

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