Chapter Review

The Natural Thyroid Diet

The Natural Thyroid Diet

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1. For each set of terms, choose the one that does not belong, and then explain why it does not belong.

a. insulin, prostaglandin, glucagon b. oxytocin, epinephrine, antidiuretic hormone c. aldosterone, cortisol, glucagon

2. Explain the relationship between the following pairs of terms:

a. target cells and receptors b. pituitary gland and thyroid gland c. exocrine gland and endocrine gland

3. Use the following terms in the same sentence: estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone.

4. Word Roots and Origins In Greek, the word hormon means "to excite." Why was the name hormones chosen for these molecules?

Understanding Key Concepts

5. Identify four major functions of hormones.

6. Differentiate how endocrine glands differ from exocrine glands.

7. Sequence the steps that occur when most amino acid-based hormones act on their target cells.

8. Sequence the steps that occur when a steroid or thyroid hormone acts on its target cell.

9. Describe why neuropeptides and prostaglandins are hormones.

10. Describe two ways in which the endocrine system and the nervous system are similar.

11. Discuss how the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland interact to control the release of many hormones.

12. Summarize the major functions of the thyroid hormones.

13. Name the two hormones in the adrenal medulla that are released when a person experiences stress.

14. State the two hormones that stimulate secretion of the sex hormones from the gonads.

15. Summarize the nonhereditary factors that are associated with the onset of type II diabetes.

16. Describe how the hormone gastrin helps in the process of digestion.

17. Summarize the role of feedback mechanisms in maintaining homeostasis.

18. Explain why positive feedback is not an efficient way to control hormone levels.

19. Explain how negative feedback regulates the level of thyroid hormones.

20. Describe how insulin and glucagon work together as antagonistic hormones to control the level of glucose in the blood.

21. CONCEPT MAPPING Use the following □ □ □ terms to create a concept map that describes the endocrine system: hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, hormones, adrenal glands, pancreas, and target cell.

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