Chapter Review

uSING vOCABULARY

Critical Thinking

1. Use each of the following terms in a separate sentence: biodiversity, binomial nomenclature, species identifier, and subspecies.

2. Explain the relationship between a phylum and a division.

3. Choose the term that does not belong in the following group, and explain why the term does not belong: homologous, derived character, shared character, and analogous.

4. Word Roots and Origins The word taxonomy is derived from the Greek words taxis, which means "to put in order," and nomia, which means "a set of rules or laws." Using this information, explain why the term taxonomy is a good name for the process that the term describes.

Understanding Key Concepts

5. Explain the primary difficulty of organizing Earth's biodiversity.

6. Describe how Aristotle's and Linnaeus's classification systems for organisms were similar.

7. Explain why a consistent naming system for species is important in scientific work.

8. List the seven levels of Linnaeus's classification hierarchy from most general to most specific.

9. Name the kinds of evidence that systematists use in constructing a phylogenetic tree.

10. Identify the system of classification that is based on an analysis of shared, derived characters.

11. Describe how amino acid and nucleotide sequences function as a molecular clock.

12. Summarize one way that cladistic taxonomy differs from traditional taxonomy.

13. Name the three domains and six kingdoms, and indicate the relationships of the two sets of taxa.

14. Describe the molecular evidence that led to the three-domain system of classification.

15. Differentiate between bacteria and archaea.

16. Compare plants and fungi, and describe what they have in common with animals.

17. JX CONCEPT MAPPING Use the following □ □ □ terms to create a concept map that describes how biologists classify a new species: genus, species, binomial nomenclature, kingdom, homologous structures, taxonomy, derived characters, cladogram, and systematics.

18. Evaluating Viewpoints Scientists sometimes disagree about the phylogenetic histories of organisms. Cladistic taxonomists see reptiles in a different light than traditional taxonomists do. Why might scientists disagree with each other about the history of evolution?

19. Evaluating Models The evolutionary history of reptiles can be studied by comparing their macromolecules. The degree of difference can be related to the time that has passed since any two species descended from a common ancestor. Would the phylogenetic tree derived from macro-molecular comparisons more closely resemble the results of cladistic analysis or the traditional classification?

20. Evaluating Information Biologists think that there may be millions of undescribed and unclassified species on Earth. Why might so many species still be undescribed or unclassified today?

21. Analyzing Concepts Legs are an example of a shared, derived character in vertebrates. Arthropods, such as lobsters and crickets, also have legs, but their legs are not homologous to the legs of vertebrates. Explain this difference.

22. Justifying Conclusions Several years ago, scientists found a living coelacanth, a fish that was thought to have become extinct 65 million years ago. The earliest fossils of coelacanths are about 350 million years old. The appearance of this species has changed little in 350 million years.

If you could obtain macromolecules, such as proteins, from a 350 million-year-old fossil coela-canth and compare them with those of a freshly caught coelacanth, what would you expect to find and why?

23. Interpreting Graphics A taxonomist has recorded the data below.

Derived Characters in Plants

Plants

Seeds

Vascular system

Horsetails

no

yes

Liverworts

no

no

Pine trees

yes

yes

Identify the least common derived character. List the order that the plants in the table would be placed on a cladogram.

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