Chapter Review


1. Distinguish between systolic pressure and diastolic pressure.

2. Choose the term that does not belong in the following group: erythrocyte, hemoglobin, leukocyte, and platelet. Explain why it does not belong.

3. For each pair of terms, explain the relationship between the terms.

a. atrioventricular valve and semilunar valve b. artery and vein c. expiration and inspiration

4. Word Roots and Origins The word phagocyte is derived from the Greek word phagein, which means "to eat." The suffix cyte means "cell." Using this information, explain why the term phagocyte is a good name for the biological process that the term describes.

Understanding Key Concepts

5. Identify the parts of the human heart, and describe the function of each part.

6. Outline the route that blood takes through the heart, lungs, and body.

7. Relate the structure of arteries, veins, and capillaries to the function of each.

8. Compare the pulmonary arteries and the aorta.

9. Compare the pulmonary veins and the inferior vena cava.

10. Summarize the roles of the lymphatic system.

11. Discuss the function of each of the components of blood.

12. Identify the structure that red blood cells lack that limits their life span.

13. Describe three differences between white blood cells and red blood cells.

14. Sequence the process of blood-clot formation that occurs after a vessel is injured.

15. Explain the A-B-O blood-typing system.

16. Identify the role of the Rh factor in determining blood compatibility for transfusion.

17. Compare external respiration with internal respiration.

18. Sequence the path oxygen travels from the environment into the blood.

19. Compare the transport and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

20. Describe the movement of the diaphragm and the rib muscles during inspiration and expiration.

21. Name the factor that stimulates the brain stem to increase the breathing rate.

22. CONCEPT MAPPING Use the following □ □ □ terms to create a concept map that shows the relationship between the cardiovascular, lymphatic, and respiratory systems: artery, capillary, vein, lymphatic system, pulmonary circulation, systemic circulation, atrium, ventricle, aorta, and vena cava.

Critical Thinking

23. Inferring Relationships A person with anemia can have too few red blood cells or low hemoglobin levels. The most common symptom is a lack of energy. Why would anemia cause this symptom?

24. Applying Information Explain how the lymphatic system moves lymph through the body without the aid of a pumping organ like that of the cardiovascular system.

25. Analyzing Concepts One function of the cardiovascular system is to help maintain a uniform body temperature. Explain how the constant circulation of blood throughout the body can accomplish this task.

26. Interpreting Graphics Copy the blood-type table below on a sheet of paper. Fill in the missing information for each type.

TABLE 1 Blood Type

Blood type

Antigen on the red blood cell

Antibodies in plasma

Can receive blood from

Can donate blood to

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