Chapter Review


1. Use the following terms in the same sentence: evolution, natural selection, adaptation, and fitness.

2. For each pair of terms, explain how the meanings of the terms differ.

a. acquired trait and inherited trait b. homologous structure and analogous structure c. relative age and absolute age d. divergent evolution and convergent evolution e. artificial selection and natural selection

3. Word Roots and Origins The word radiation is derived from the Latin radius, which means "rod" or "ray." Using this information, explain the meaning of adaptive radiation.

Understanding Key Concepts

4. Define the biological process of evolution.

5. Contrast Cuvier's catastrophism with Lyell's uniformitarianism.

6. Describe how the finch species of the Galápagos Islands illustrate descent with modification.

7. List the steps of reasoning that Darwin gave to explain the process of natural selection.

8. Identify several factors that could limit the growth of populations.

9. Relate the roles of adaptation and fitness in the theory of natural selection.

10. State several inferences about evolution that are supported by fossil evidence.

11. Describe evidence from biogeography that species evolve adaptations to their environments.

12. Identify an example of a vestigial structure.

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