Chapter Review

uSING vOCABULARY

1. For each pair of terms, explain how the meanings of the terms differ.

a. mutualism and commensalism b. parasitism and predation c. species richness and species evenness d. primary succession and secondary succession e. pioneer species and climax community

2. Word Roots and Origins The word niche is derived from the Old French word nichier, which means "to nest." Using this information, explain why niche is a good term for the role of an organism in its environment.

Understanding Key Concepts

3. Compare the five major types of relationships between species by creating a table.

4. Describe two evolutionary adaptations that enable organisms to be efficient predators.

5. Identify two evolutionary adaptations that enable prey species to avoid being eaten.

6. Explain some of the adaptations that may enable a host species to defend itself against parasites.

7. Describe the experiments that Gause conducted on competition in paramecia, and explain what the results demonstrated.

8. State why, in the study of competition between two species of barnacles, Semibalanus balanoides was the superior competitor, yet Chthamalus stellatus was not excluded from the community.

9. Identify the benefits that certain ants derive from their relationship with Acacia plants and the benefits that the plants receive from the ants.

10. Explain the possible consequences of habitat loss in terms of the species-area effect.

11. Describe how a disturbance could benefit some species in a community.

12. Summarize one view on how species richness affects community stability.

13. State some reasons why the process of succession may be more complex than once thought.

Write a short report summarizing UOUKPf how artificial ecosystems used in

Va»' the management and treatment of wastewater and pollutants can demonstrate succession.

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