1. For each pair of terms, explain how the meanings of the terms differ.
a. hypha and mycelium b. septate hyphae and coenocytic hyphae c. basidiocarp and ascocarp d. mycorrhiza and mycelium
2. Choose the term that does not belong in the following group, and explain why it does not belong: hypha, mycelium, and lichen.
3. Use each of the following terms in a separate sentence: mold, yeast, chitin, and rhizoid.
4. Word Roots and Origins The word gametangium comes from two Greek words: gamete, meaning "spouse," and angeion, meaning "case" or "capsule." Using this information, explain why gametangium is a suitable term for what happens when two different mating types of fungal filaments meet.
Understanding Key Concepts
5. State how fungi and plants differ from each other.
6. Explain how hyphae provide nutrients for a fungus.
7. Name the structure that makes up the body of a fungus.
8. List three methods of asexual reproduction in fungi.
9. Summarize one hypothesis about the origin of fungi.
10. Define dimorphism and give an example of a fungus that is dimorphic.
11. Name an example of each of the three phyla of modern fungi.
12. Describe why some fungi are called club fungi.
13. Differentiate between a root and a rhizoid.
14. Differentiate between a gametangium and a zygosporangium.
15. Summarize the similarities between a mycorrhiza and a lichen.
16. Explain how mycorrhizae are of importance to both plants and fungi.
17. Relate how a fungus in bird feces can be potentially dangerous to humans.
18. List three ways in which fungi are beneficial to the health of humans.
19. Identify a chemical compound used in candies and soft drinks that is produced by certain fungi.
20. Give two examples of foods that are produced with the use of fungi.
21. IX CONCEPT MAPPING Use the following □ □ □ terms to create a concept map that shows the sequence of events in the formation of an ascocarp and that begins with a germinating ascospore: ascocarp, ascogonium, asci, tube, ascospores, meiosis, antheridium, and mitosis.
22. Interpreting Graphics A winemaker experimenting with three different strains of yeast charts the number of viable yeast remaining in the wine as the grapes ferment. The three strains were grown in separate containers, at the same temperature, and with the same type of grape. Give reasons why strain C survived longer than strains A and B.
Growth of Three Strains of Yeast
Time (in hours)
23. Critiquing Relationships Comment on the validity of this statement: The relationship mycorrhizae have with trees is an example of mutualism.
24. Relating Concepts What adaptive advantage does dimorphism give a fungus?
25. Analyzing Concepts What advantages might a fungal spore have over a seed?
26. Applying Information A folk remedy for the treatment of an infected wound calls for a piece of moistened, moldy bread to be placed on the wound. How might this practice help a wound to heal?
Standardized Test Preparation
DIRECTIONS: Choose the letter of the answer choice that best answers the question.
1. What are fungi that feed on decaying organic matter called?
2. Lichens represent a symbiotic association between a fungus and which other type of organism?
F. an alga
G. a plant
J. a rhizoid
3. In a mycorrhiza, a fungus lives in a symbiotic relationship with which of the following?
A. a virus
B. a plant
C. a bacterium
D. a slime mold
INTERPRETING GRAPHICS: The diagram below shows the fruiting bodies of a type of fungus. Use the diagram to answer the questions that follow.
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