Chapter Review


1. For each pair of terms, explain how the meanings of the terms differ.

a. conformer and regulator b. community and ecosystem c. migration and dormancy d. nitrogen fixation and ammonification

2. Use the following terms in the same sentence: producer, consumer, herbivore, omnivore, carnivore, detritivore, and decomposer.

3. Word Roots and Origins The word transpiration is derived from the Latin trans, which means "through," and spirare, which means "breathe." Using this information, explain why the term transpiration is a good name for the process it describes.

Understanding Key Concepts

4. Explain how an understanding of interdependence in ecosystems might be important to public health officials.

5. Evaluate how models are valuable to ecologists.

6. Describe some limitations of ecological models.

7. Identify five levels of organization in ecology.

8. Propose two examples of biotic factors and abiotic factors.

9. Explain the ecological concept of a niche.

10. Distinguish between conformers and regulators in how they deal with environmental change.

11. Compare photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic producers.

12. Distinguish between a herbivore, a carnivore, and an omnivore.

13. State an example of each of the following: a herbivore, a carnivore, and an omnivore.

14. Explain the importance of decomposers in an ecosystem.

15. Describe why a food web is a more complete picture of the feeding relationships in an ecosystem than a food chain is.

16. Identify the reasons why most ecosystems normally contain only a few trophic levels.

17. Compare the transfer of energy with the transfer of nutrients in an ecosystem.

18. Explain how plants return water to the atmosphere as part of the water cycle.

19. Describe two processes in the carbon cycle.

20. List the mutual benefits in the association between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and the plants that they inhabit.

21. Summarize the phosphorus cycle.

22. CONCEPT MAPPING Use the following □ □ □ terms to create a concept map that shows some of the processes involved in the water cycle: evaporation, precipitation, transpiration, and condensation.

Critical Thinking

23. Interpreting Graphics Examine the diagram below of a tolerance curve. Briefly describe the conditions in each zone of tolerance and the reactions a species may have to them.

Salinity Tolerance Curve

Intolerance Stress

Optimal Stress Intolerance

Tolerance limit

Intolerance Stress

Optimal Stress Intolerance

Tolerance limit o Low salinity o Low salinity

High salinity

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