Chapter Review

uSING vOCABULARY

1. For each pair of terms, explain the relationship between the terms.

a. taproot and fibrous root b. sieve tube member and vessel element c. transpiration and translocation

2. Use the following terms in the same sentence: parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma.

3. For each pair of terms, explain how the meanings of the terms differ.

a. apical meristem and lateral meristem b. simple leaf and compound leaf c. root hair and root cap

4. Word Roots and Origins The word mesophyll is derived from the Latin meso, which means "middle," and the Greek phyllon, which means "leaf." Using this information, explain why the term mesophyll is a good name for the part of the leaf that the term describes.

Understanding Key Concepts

5. Compare the structure and function of parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma cells.

6. Compare the functions of the three plant tissue systems.

7. Differentiate the type of growth that occurs in each of the three kinds of meristems.

8. Explain the difference between primary growth and secondary growth.

9. Name two types of adventitious roots.

10. Sequence the structures of a root that a water molecule would pass through as it enters and then moves through a plant.

11. Relate what causes a plant stem or root to grow in diameter.

12. Name two familiar examples of carbohydrate storage in roots.

13. Explain why stems vary in shape and growth patterns.

14. Distinguish the structure of a root from the structure of a stem.

15. Explain how annual rings form in a woody plant.

16. Differentiate between the mechanisms of water and sugar transport in a plant.

17. Explain why all leaves do not look alike.

18. Describe the structure of a doubly compound leaf.

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