Chapter Review

uSING vOCABULARY

1. Choose the term that does not belong in the following group, and explain why it does not belong: binary fission, macronucleus, multiple fission, and conjugation.

2. For each pair of terms, explain the relationship between the terms.

a. pseudopodia and amoeboid movement b. macronucleus and micronucleus c. algae and thallus d. sporozoites and merozoites

3. Use each of the following terms in a separate sentence: algal bloom, red tide, fruiting body, and pellicle.

4. Word Roots and Origins The word diatom comes from the Greek word diatomos, which means "cut in half." Using this information, explain how diatom is an appropriate term for the organisms it describes.

Understanding Key Concepts

5. Define protist.

6. Describe a hypothesis for the origin of eukaryotic cells.

7. State the way in which protists are generally classified.

8. Compare two ways by which protists obtain food and three ways by which they move.

9. List three ways by which protists reproduce.

10. Differentiate between Protozoa, Ciliophora, Sarcomastigophora, and Apicomplexa.

11. Explain how protozoa use pseudopodia to move and capture food.

12. Relate how ciliates reproduce.

13. Compare movement in sarcodines, ciliates, and mastigophorans.

14. Identify the relationship between apicomplexans and disease.

15. List four body forms of algae.

16. State the common name for each of the seven phyla of plantlike protists.

17. Compare green algae and plants.

18. Summarize the main characteristics of the four phyla of funguslike protists.

19. Describe plasmodial slime molds and cellular slime molds.

20. Describe four roles of protists in the environment.

21. Describe algal blooms and red tides.

22. Name an important role for protists in research.

23. List four uses of protists and protist byproducts.

24. Summarize the characteristics of four protist-caused diseases.

25. JX CONCEPT MAPPING Use the following □ □ □ terms to create a concept map that describes the characteristics of animal-like pro-tists: Protozoa, amoeboid movement, pseudopo-dia, Ciliophora, flagella, Sarcomastigophora, cilia, cytoplasmic streaming, test, pellicle, parasites, and Apicomplexa.

Critical Thinking

26. Relating Concepts Health officials advise that people should not eat shellfish from certain areas during the summer months. Explain the reason for this warning.

27. Analyzing Data Scientists are trying to develop a vaccine against malaria. Because malaria has several life stages, scientists must decide which life stage should be the target of the vaccine. Some scientists are trying to develop a vaccine against gametocytes as a way of controlling malaria. If they are successful in developing this vaccine, how will it help people living in areas where malaria regularly occurs? Explain your answer.

28. Making Comparisons How is the movement of Dictyostelium toward AMP similar to the movement of leukocytes? How is it different? Based on this information, is Dictyostelium a good model for leukocytes? Justify your answer.

29. Interpreting Graphics A scientist found two different euglenoids. The scientist concluded that specimen a is exclusively heterotrophic but specimen b is not. Examine the images of the specimens below, and determine if the scientist is correct in his or her conclusions.

<¿y Standardized Test Preparation

DIRECTIONS: Choose the letter of the answer choice that best answers the question.

1. Most scientists believe that protists evolved from which of the following?

A. fungi

B. plants

C. euglenoids

D. prokaryotes

2. Protist habitats are often characterized by the presence of which of the following?

F. soil

G. algae

H. blood

J. moisture

3. Flagella are characteristic of members of which phylum?

A. Protozoa

B. Ciliophora

C. Apicomplexa

D. Sarcomastigophora

INTERPRETING GRAPHICS: The table below shows cases of amebiasis and malaria in the United States between 1986 and 1994. Use the table to answer the questions that follow.

Protist-Caused Diseases in the United States, 1986-1994

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