Atp

The actual number of ATP molecules generated through cellular respiration varies from cell to cell. In most eukaryotic cells, the NADH that is made in the cytosol during glycolysis cannot diffuse through the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. Instead, it must be actively transported into the mitochondrial matrix. The active transport of NADH consumes ATP. As a result, most eukaryotic cells produce only about 36 ATP molecules per glucose molecule.

The efficiency of cellular respiration can vary depending on conditions in the cell. In general, the efficiency when 38 ATP molecules are generated can be estimated as shown below:

figure 7-13

Through cellular respiration, cells are more efficient at generating energy than many machines—including cars.

Efficiency of cellular respiration

_Energyrequiredto makeATP_

Energyreleased byoxidationof glucose

Thus, cellular respiration is nearly 20 times more efficient than glycolysis alone. In fact, the efficiency of cellular respiration is quite impressive compared with the efficiency of machines that humans have designed, such as the car shown in Figure 7-13. An automobile engine, for example, is only about 25 percent efficient in extracting energy from gasoline to move a car. Most of the remaining energy released from gasoline is lost as heat.

figure 7-13

Through cellular respiration, cells are more efficient at generating energy than many machines—including cars.

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