Professional Makeup For Beginners
A product can be both a cosmetic and a drug. Examples of cosmetic-drugs include deodorants with antiperspirant claims, toothpastes with anticaries claims, antidandruff shampoos, and makeup preparations with sunscreen protection. Cosmetic-drugs must comply with both cosmetic and drug labeling requirements. Section 502(e) of the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act requires that drug products list all active ingredients on the label. If a product is both a drug and a cosmetic, the inactive ingredients must be listed in accordance with Section 701.3 of the FDA regulations, with some exceptions 33 . Briefly, this means that the sunscreen active ingredients must be listed separately using their drug designations and the other ingredients must be listed in decreasing order by their percent w w using their International Nomenclature Cosmetic Ingredient (INCI) designations 36 . Perhaps the most common cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients are moisturizers. Several companies sell day formulas...
There is little commonality in the scientific methods, processes, and formulations required for the wide variety of cosmetics and toiletries in the market. Products range from preparations for hair, oral, and skin care to lipsticks, nail polishes and extenders, deodorants, body powders and aerosols, to quasi-pharmaceutical over-the-counter products such as antiperspirants, dandruff shampoos, antimicrobial soaps, and acne and sun screen products. Cosmetics and toiletries represent a highly diversified field involving many subsections of science and art. Even in these days of high technology, art and intuition continue to play an important part in the development of formulations, their evaluations, selection of raw materials, and, perhaps most importantly, the successful marketing of new products. The application of more sophisticated scientific methodologies that gained steam in the 1980s has increased in such areas as claim substantiation, safety testing, product testing, and chemical...
Perhaps the loudest debates of all have arisen about the implications of the Human Genome Project, a massive undertaking to determine the complete genetic makeup of human beings. During the project's final years, media attention focused on the rivalry between Francis Collins, who led the international, government-sponsored project, and scientist-entrepreneur Craig Venter, who headed a private company that claimed it could complete the genome analysis sooner and more inexpensively than the government effort could. Once the project was complete, however, discussion centered on the ways the genome information might be used. Observers say that understanding the human genome could lead to greatly improved treatments for disease, unprecedented discrimination based on genetic makeup or perhaps both.
Creation And Maintenance Of Cell Lines Stably And Heterologously Expressing nAChR Of Defined Subunit Composition
Lines are those derived from a single cell. Flow cytometric studies show that chromosomal makeup and numbers can vary wildly as a tumor-derived cell line becomes established. Continuous cell lines usually arise when a particular chromosomal makeup stabilizes growth and cell phenotype. However, recombinations still can occur to give cells a competitive growth advantage but could result in loss of genes or gene expression of interest. The policy is not to carry any cell line for more than 6 months or about 30 passages (realizing that cells in stocks are no less than 5 passages and may be as far as 20 passages removed from the true first passage). Even established cell lines, such as PC12 or SH-SY5Y, sporadically show loss of nAChR when carried for more than 20 passages from the stocks. Engineered cell lines are considered to be stably transfected if they have been carried for at least 24 passages without evidence of loss of transfected gene expression. However, this does not ensure that...
A second factor driving the rise of multifunctional personal care products has to do with the level of maturity of the technology used to create cosmetics. As cosmetic science has matured, it has become increasingly difficult for formulators to improve upon any single aspect of a product's performance. Consider cleansing products like shampoos or soap bars. For centuries, all these products were based on soaps, which are saponified fatty acids. Because of their surfactant nature, soaps are able to remove dirt and grease from a variety of surfaces. However, soaps also tend to dry the skin and can combine with hard water ions to form insoluble deposits, resulting in the notorious bathtub ring. During the 1940s, advances in organic chemistry led to synthetic detergents such as sodium lauryl sulfate and a-olefin sulfonates, which were vastly superior in performance to soap. Today, the majority of cleansing products (including some bar soaps) use synthetic detergents. Surfactant technology...
Gene expression data have proven highly informative of disease state, particularly in the area of oncology, where accurate and early diagnosis, followed by appropriate treatment, can prove critical. Studies on clinical samples have shown that gene expression data can be used not only to distinguish between tumour types, define new (histologically indistinct) subtypes, and identify mis-classified cell lines, but also to predict prognostic outcomes (Alizadeh et al., 2000 Bittner etal., 2000 Golub etal., 1999 Perou etal., 1999 Shipp etal., 2002). This approach is particularly powerful in offering the promise of'personalised medicine', in which the specific underlying defect can be identified, the prognosis predicted, and treatment tailored to the genetic makeup of the individual and the specific defect in each patient, thus reducing the likelihood of unwanted side effects.
Most biological pigments are grouped into no more than six kinds of structures tetrapyrroles, isoprenoids, quinones, benzopyrans, N-heterocyclic compounds, and metalloproteins. Scientific reports have described about 34 tetrapyrroles (28 cyclic and 6 linear), over 600 carotenoids, more than 4100 flavonoids and within this group over 250 anthocyanins (although constituted of only 17 anthocyanidins). Quinones are widely distributed, probably by virtue of the importance of their functions (Chapter 6). In addition, several of the most important pigments in ancient times were quinones, which were used in dyeing textile products (anthraquinones from the roots of Rubia tinctorum) and in the preparation of cosmetics (naphthaquinones from Lawsonia alba). In addition, anthraquinones from the insects Kermococcus ilicis (dyestuff kermes) and Dactylopius coccus (carminic acid) have been used as food color additives (Chapter 9). Further, the -heterocyclic compound indigoid was also used in the...
There is some controversy concerning the usefulness of animal models in testing chronic wound dressings for efficacy. The pathology of the chronic wound is even more complex than the healing wound, and difficult to mimic. One predictor for efficacy of a chronic wound dressing is testing the dressing in vitro with chronic wound fluid or proteins that mimic the environment and protein concentration as well as makeup of chronic wound exudate. During the course of developing a modified cotton product for commercialization, two models for studying the performance of the modified cotton fiber under conditions that mimic chronic wound fluid exudate were made. One model consisted of assaying the modified fiber in diluted chronic wound fluid containing high elastase activity similar to that of the chronic wound 24 . More recently, we have developed a model utilizing albumin concentrations that mimic those levels of albumin found in the chronic wound in the presence of elastase. Another purpose...
Clinical Safety and Efficacy Testing of Cosmetics, edited by William C. Waggoner 13. Rheological Properties of Cosmetics and Toiletries, edited by Dennis Laba 16. Preservative-Free and Self-Preserving Cosmetics and Drugs Principles and Practice, edited by Jon J. Kabara and Donald S. Orth
Colorants obtained from synthetic certified FD&C (food, drugs, and cosmetics) pigments and aluminum hydroxide. Pigments are absorbed on an aluminum hydroxide (alumina hydrate) substrate with a basic aluminum or calcium radical. These colorants are water insoluble.
These first written traces testify to an activity that is fundamental to the human brain that of giving meaning to a physical makeup (in this case, randomly distributed line patterns) with the goal of mastering the evolution of time in a world that escapes us. The human brain proceeds in a direction opposite to the input-output mode long proposed by cybernetics. It always projects onto the world, in a spontaneous and internally generated fashion, mental representations that it tries to test against an external reality that is intrinsically devoid of meaning. This projection, as a generator of mental forms, represents an essential predisposition of the human brain toward creation (Changeux, 1983, 2004 Berthoz, 2002).
As an adjunct to physiologic studies on tissue with potential genetic abnormalities, a potentially useful manipulation is to employ single-cell polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques to amplify and identify specific genetic material (or its absence or modification in the case of knockout or transgenic animals). This process for identifying a cell's genetic makeup is facilitated in the acutely dissociated cell preparation. With the dissociated cell preparation, one is spared the task of aspirating the contents of a cell (the required procedure when single-cell PCR is applied to neurons, e.g., in slices) because the whole cell can be processed directly and with minimal risk of contamination from other cells.
In the United States the registration of pesticides is based on the 1947 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA).6 The 1910 Insecticide Act was the first US statute to govern pesticide use. It contained standards for the purity of substances, but did not require product registration (Formica & Miller 1999). However, it took a very long time - until the beginning of the 1970s - before the federal registration became more than a rather empty formality. One of the problems of the 1947 Act was that the Secretary of Agriculture could not refuse registration, another that the FIFRA only concerned interstate commerce. In 1972 the scope of the federal law was extended. The Federal Environmental Pesticides Control Act of 1972 changed FIFRA into the act which is the basis of today's FIFRA (Miller 1997). In the meantime the adverse effects of using pesticides had arisen as a topic on the American public agenda. Important steps to public awareness included the publication of...
Functioning as a shampoo, a two-in-one should provide sufficient detergent actions to remove all the unwanted hair soil, which consists of hair lipids 1-7 , dust particles 8 , skin debris 9 from the hair shaft, and all other residues from previous hair cosmetics, such as hair spray. Shampoo removal of hair soil is a complex process 10-20 , requiring the use of ingredients that are highly surface active. The cleaning agents should be able to wet the hair surface thoroughly. They should have the required properties to help emulsify and to solubilize the hair soil to facilitate its separation from the hair.
Healthy humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 22 autosomal pairs plus the sex chromosomal pair (XX or XY). A gene denotes a location (stretch of DNA) on each of a chromosome pair that encodes a gene product (enzyme, or other protein). A locus indicates the location of a stretch of DNA on each of a pair of chromosomes that need not necessarily code for a gene product. Diploid refers to a eukaryote having chromosome pairs haploid refers to one active chromosome of each pair (e.g., as found in the sperm and egg). Each gene is made up of two alleles, one from the father and one from the mother the combination of these two alleles, as well as one's genetic makeup, is called the genotype. An allele can transmit a dominantly inherited trait (e.g., pigmented skin) or a recessive trait (e.g., blue eyes). Another term for trait isphenotype. Homozygotes are individuals having two
Before we discuss the structure of chromosomes in detail, it is important to understand the features of the DNA molecules that form their foundation, The recent sequencing of the genomes of numerous organisms has provided a wealth of information concerning the makeup of chromosomal DNAs and how their characteristics have changed as organisms have increased in complexity. TABLE 7-1 Variation in Chromosome Makeup in Different Organisms
An organism's genetic makeup is its genotype (JEEN-uh-TlEP). The genotype consists of the alleles that the organism inherits from its parents. For example, the genotype of the white-flowering pea plant in Figure 9-6 consists of two recessive alleles for white flower color, represented as pp. The genotype of a purple-flowering pea plant may be either PP or Pp. Either of these two genotypes would result in a pea plant that has purple flowers because the P allele is dominant.
The first step in the product selection process is therefore to obtain a summary of changes in the method of manufacture. In most companies such information is part of the master batch record file. Then a time interval is selected that represents the last 20 to 30 batches. Products for which there is no record of a change in the method of manufacture or control during this period can be regarded as candidates for validation. The 20-to-30-batch rule originates from control chart principals, which consider 20 to 30 points that plot within the limits as evidence of a stable process 4 . Once this criterion is met, the number selected is actually somewhat arbitrary, as there is no one number that is correct for every product. The ideal number of batches required to study a product is theoretically the number that permits all process variables to come into play. By process variables, we mean raw materials from different but approved vendors, introduction of similar but different pieces of...
Ophthalmic lubricating ointments are similar to artificial tears in their makeup. In addition, ointments contain emollients such as petrolatum, mineral oil, and lanolin. Applied as a small ribbon to the inferior cul-de-sac, these products dissolve at ocular surface temperature, spread with the tear film, and lubricate and protect the tissues. The increased contact time and viscosity of ophthalmic lubricating ointments make them very useful in the treatment of severe dry eye or in cases of exposure secondary to nocturnal lagophthalmos (a condition where the lids do not entirely close during sleep). Though ointments have advantages, their major drawback, like all ophthalmic ointments, is the transient blurring of vision. Ointments are, thus, used primarily at night, unless the dry eye is significant enough to warrant otherwise. A list of selected lubricating ointments is provided in Table 5-4.
Include ridge-filling ingredients, which help create a smooth beautiful manicure. Since the surface of the human fingernail becomes rough and uneven, a ridge-filling claim is important for many users of nail enamel. The problem seems to get worse with age. The choice of filler ingredients is broad, but if you choose a heavy ingredient, a suspending agent will be required. Filler ingredients include those commonly used in makeup and include sericite, talc, mica, quartz, and many others 10 .
Cosmetic A substance applied to the human body for the purpose of altering the appearance, beautifying, cleansing, or promoting attractiveness. Soaps do not fall under the definition of cosmetics 1,6 . Note that if a product is classified as both a cosmetic and a drug, it must meet the regulatory requirements for both cosmetics and drugs 1 .
Tasks of daily living with the neuroprosthesis to their ability without using the neuroprosthesis. Tested tasks include eating, drinking, writing, and brushing teeth. In addition to these common tasks, subjects also have been tested in tasks of particular interest to them, including applying makeup, brushing hair, getting money out of a wallet, rolling dice, and painting. Individual phases of each task are identified, such as acquire, release and performance. The subject's level of independence is rated for each phase. The rating categories were needs physical assistance, needs adaptive equipment, needs an orthotic assist (braces), needs self assistance (second hand, mouth), or is independent. The subject is asked whether he or she prefers to perform each task with, or without, the neuroprosthesis.
Testing chemicals for tumor formation in animals is expensive and time-consuming. However, since cancer is due to DNA alterations, most carcinogens are in fact also mutagens. Consequently, chemicals suspected of being carcinogenic are routinely screened for possible mutagenic effects by testing against bacteria. The Ames test makes use of multiple strains of the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium carrying well characterized mutations in the genes for histidine synthesis. It is used routinely by industry and government agencies to screen food colorings and preservatives, cosmetics such as hair dyes, and many other industrial chemicals for possible mutagenic effects.
In view of the evidence presented above that brain acetate levels and myelin lipid synthesis are reduced in CD mice, correcting the acetate deficit by acetate supplementation would appear to be an obvious therapeutic approach for CD. In our preclinical efforts toward such a therapy for CD, we are currently examining glyceryl triacetate (Triacetin) and calcium acetate as potential exogenous acetate sources for delivering acetate to the brain. Glyceryl triacetate is a non-toxic glyceryl tri-ester of acetic acid that is widely used as a solvent and plasticizer in perfumery, tanning, dyes, as a food additive, a gelatinizing agent in cosmetics and is also used in external medicine. Biochemical studies on glyceryl triacetate have shown that glyceryl triacetate is hydrolyzed in vivo by all tissues of mammals including the gastrointestinal tract.53 Calcium acetate is currently approved as a drug for the treatment of kidney disease to control high blood phosphate levels.54 In preliminary...
Titania has been employed in a large spectrum of products, including pharmaceutics and cosmetics. TiO2 NPs are produced and largely employed in sunscreens, as they are powerful absorbent of UV radiations. Titania is a very white powder, but when the particle size becomes of the order of
The genetic makeup of an organism is called a genotype and represents that organism's potential properties. Some properties may not have developed. Those that do develop are called an organism's phenotype. The phenotype represents expressed properties, such as blue eyes and curly hair.
Bathroom lighting should be installed to suit specific needs and circumstances. The highest illumination is required at vanity mirrors for close activities such as applying makeup and shaving. Incandescent or full-spectrum fluorescent light is best suited for this purpose. Because this lighting is intense, light sources should be baffled to reduce glare. Vanity lighting for wheelchair or seated users requires minor adjustments to conventional arrangements. Most wheelchair users, for example, cannot get close enough to the wall mirror for focused activities such as shaving or applying makeup. A portable self-illuminated mirror that is set on the vanity top is helpful for this purpose.
FDA issued a proposed rule to establish conditions for the safety, effectiveness and labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) sunscreen drug products 10 . The proposed rule, known as the Sunscreen Monograph, was based on the recommendations of the Advisory Review Panel on Over-the-Counter (OTC) Topical Analgesic, Antirheumatic, Otic, Burn, and Sunburn Prevention and Treatment Products. The panel recognized that many products associated with suntanning and sun protection had been tradionally considered to be cosmetics, in accordance with the statutory definition of a cosmetic as articles intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled, or sprayed on, introduced into, or otherwise applied to the human body or any part thereof for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance However the panel decided that products intended to be used for prevention of sunburn or any similar condition should be regarded as drugs. Under the Federal Food, Drug and...
Foodstuff industry use oregano oil and oregano resin both in foods and in beverages and also in cosmetics. Oregano oil is used in alcoholic beverages, baked goods, meats and meat products, condiments and relishes, milk products, processed vegetables, snack foods, and fats and oils. Marjoram, too, is used in many foods and beverages in food industry meat sauces, canned foods, vinegar, vermouths and bitters are often seasoned with marjoram.
The choice of solvents and related components, which must be volatile, is very important for obtaining high-quality electrospray spectra. Even though sample introduction is through a liquid medium, the solvent eventually needs to be volatilized. If a nonvolatile solvent or buffer is used, the result is frequent plugging of the capillary tubing and or some of the beam-defining components. In ESI the solvated sample is passed through a needle held at a high potential (3-10 kV). As the molecule exits from the needle, the resulting spray undergoes electrostatic nebulization, which places (a) charge(s) on the droplet. The charged droplet passes through a variety of focusing elements, which are differentially pumped. One result is desolvation of the droplet. Depending on the size and chemical makeup of the analyte, the resulting stable ion can have a single charge, or depending on the repulsive forces, may be multiply charged. Mass analysis of this ion can be carried out with any type of...
The National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) of the NIH has initiated the Pharmacogenetics Research Network focusing on the study of how genes affect the way people respond to medicines. NIGMS defines the ultimate goal of pharmacogenetics research as helping physicians tailor doses of medicines to a person's unique genetic makeup, thereby making medicines safer and more effective for everyone. Information regarding pharmacogenetic research is available at
Interactions with personal environments. Where do people use products How do their environments affect product use For example, with society becoming increasingly mobile, many women need to apply makeup on the run in taxis, on trains and buses, in the bathroom at work, and, yes, even driving or walking down the street. To make the job easier and quicker, and the cosmetics themselves less bulky, some women began to use their blush both for cheeks and as eye shadow, or their lipstick both for their lips and as their blush. 2. Observation. The key difference between this set of methodologies and others is that it is often more about watching than it is about questioning. The observers are generally quiet. They may send out a few very broad, open-ended questions, and they will likely develop a list of more specific questions to be used later in the development process. The primary object of the observation is consumer experience. The experience of applying, wearing, and removing makeup,...
Twins, monozygotic Also known as identical twins, two babies that come from a single fertilized egg and share identical genetic makeup. If one monozygotic twin develops MS, the other has a 30 100 risk of developing the disease, indicating that factors other than genetic makeup contribute to the etiology of MS.
Genetic testing also may be used to identify which medications are best for you based on your genetic makeup. For example, a medication that is very effective for one person may be less effective or even harmful to someone with a different genetic makeup. By studying genetic differences, scientists hope to develop medications that are matched to genetic makeup. A. How likely would you be to have a genetic test to learn which medicine is most effective for you based on your genetic makeup Would you be (READ CATEGORIES) Very Likely Somewhat Likely Somewhat Unlikely Very Unlikely RF DK B. How likely would you be to have a genetic test to learn what dose of medicine you should take based on your genetic makeup Would you be (READ CATEGORIES) Very Likely Somewhat Likely Somewhat Unlikely Very Unlikely RF DK 4. A great deal of research is needed to develop medicines based on genetic makeup. How likely would you be to participate in genetic research under each of the following conditions 7....
Factors affecting biological integrity of agents samples may be highly variable because of the diverse array of threat agent characteristics, environmental conditions, sample matrices, agent concentrations, adversary threat-agent preparation methods, and methods used in sample collection and transport. With respect to threat agent characteristics, agents range from labile protein toxins to stable mycotoxins, from labile RNA viruses to stable poxviruses, and from fastidious bacteria to very stable B. anthracis spores, all with varying degrees of purity. Less pure biological test samples may contain contaminating degradative enzymes, matrix components, overgrowing environmental organisms, etc., which may complicate isolation and identification. All of these variations make establishing a single sample-handling strategy to protect biological integrity very difficult. Problems with any one of these parameters can detract from the laboratory's ability to detect or identify the target...
Most hormone disrupters interfere with the sex hormones. Such hormone disrupters prevent normal production of testosterone in males or increase the chances of sexual abnormality in females. Examples of hormone disrupters include phthalate (THAH-late) esters (found in plastic toys, vinyl flooring, and cosmetics), and bisphenol A and polybrominated biphenyls (used to make plastic food and drink containers).
Thelma is a 71-year-old woman who appears to be in her mid-50s, and dresses as if she were in her 20s. She is very pretty in a dolllike way. Her hair is an unnatural shade of red. She wears it sleek and smooth with bangs just barely touching her eyebrows. When she speaks, she often sweeps the bangs aside in a little girl gesture. She bats her eyes and giggles, especially when she becomes excited or anxious. Good genes, cosmetic surgeries, extravagant self-care, and skill with makeup enable her youthful appearance. She and her daughter, in her 40s, are typically taken to be sisters. This error is consistently pleasing to Thelma. From this relationship, Thelma refined her skills at attracting the attention of boys, and later men, to reassure herself that she could procure the love she needed, and that the resources would not be depleted. She was not an apt student, but completed a junior college course in retailing. She took a position after graduation as an assistant manager of a...
The focus of this chapter does not permit an extensive discussion of the complex relationship between insulin resistance, compensatory hyperin-sulinemia, and the abnormalities and clinical syndromes that makeup the IRS, and reviews of these issues are available 27,28 . However, it is important to briefly discuss the relationship between insulin resistance, compensatory hyperinsulinemia, and differential tissue insulin sensitivity in the
Etiology Contact eczema is caused by an antigen - antibody reaction in patients with intolerance to certain noxious substances. Cosmetics, adhesive bandages, or eyedrops and eye ointments are often responsible, particularly the preservatives used in them such as benzalkonium chloride.
The U.S. federal agency that is responsible for enforcing governmental regulations pertaining to the manufacture and sale of food, drugs, and cosmetics. Its role is to prevent the sale of impure or dangerous substances. Any new drug that is proposed for the treatment of MS in the United States must be approved by the FDA.
Given the range of cosmetics using nanoparticulate metal oxides primarily for UV protection it is interesting to note a cosmetics product containing fullerene in the list. In this case the fullerene is claimed to have antioxidant properties. Carbon nanotubes have been used as a reinforcing component in a new baseball bat. Silver nanoparticles feature again, this time in socks where enhanced bonding of the 19 nm silver particles to the polyester fibres is claimed to provide enhanced and longer-lasting antimicrobial and antifungal performance. A novel chewing gum having chocolate flavour, which is apparently difficult to achieve, has been produced using nanoscale crystals'' of unknown chemistry to enhance the compatibility of the cocoa butter with the polymers that are used to give the gum elasticity. So-called self-cleaning windows and paint surfaces are also included in the top 10. These are based on photoactive titanium dioxide with the windows gaining a further benefit when it...
An aspect of the cosmeceutical revolution to consider is its reason for being in the first place. Historically, consumer needs and demands have driven the cosmetic market to evolve to this point. Many years ago, a cosmetic or toiletry product was expected to have one simple function. For example, a lotion helped to moisturize dry skin, and a deodorant was used to mask body odors. As consumers increasingly demanded substantially more benefits from cosmetics and toiletries, multifunctional products were born 1,2 . For example, now a moisturizing lotion also may have antiitch benefits, promote skin exfoliation to reduce flakiness, and promote the healing of dry skin by supplying substances essential to maintain the barrier layer function. Most deodorants now are also OTC drugs because they contain antiperspirants to keep underarms dry in addition to masking body odors. The more risks associated with using a product, the greater the justification for regulating the product more closely....
In the previous section, we examined a number of ways in which biological factors shape, facilitate, or limit the nature of the individual's experiences and learning. For example, the same objective environment is perceived as different by individuals who possess different biological sensibilities people register different stimuli at varying intensities in accord with their unique pattern of alertness and sensory acuity. From this fact, we should see that experience itself is shaped at the outset by the biological equipment of the person. Furthermore, the constitutional structure of individuals strengthens the probability that they will learn certain forms of behavior. Their body build, strength, energy, neurological makeup, and autonomic system reactivity not only influence the stimuli individuals will seek or be exposed to but also determine, in large measure, types of behaviors individuals find are successful for them in dealing with these encounters.
The FDA assures the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, medical devices, our nation's food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation. The FDA is also responsible for advancing the public health by helping to speed innovations that make medicines and foods more effective, safer, and more affordable and helping the public get the accurate, science-based information they need to use medicines and foods to improve their health.
Molecular epidemiology uses phylogenetic methods to reconstruct a path of virus transmission based on heredity. As a virus replicates and moves through a population, mutations accumulate. The genetic variability displayed by the viruses is compared to deduce common ancestors and explain how one virus sequence gave rise to another. Viruses evolve, sometimes very quickly, to adapt to new hosts and environments. The genetic makeup of the pathogen may increase in variability with time and passage. Closely related virus sequences therefore correlate with recent infection and transmission. Using PCR and molecular tools, virus sequences are collected during an outbreak from infected human, animal, or insect reservoirs. These new virus sequences are then compared with a database of known virus sequences. The comparison is not a simple match of nucleotides between the virus genomes rather, it involves sophisticated algorithms creating clusters of virus sequences sharing a common evolutionary...
Standard microbiological practices have been recommended by CDC and NIH guidelines for all laboratory containment levels (110). Most of the practices are designed to prevent indirect transmission of infectious material from environmental surfaces to the hands, and from hands to the mouth or mucous membranes. Such practices include prohibition of mouth pipetting, eating, drinking, smoking, applying cosmetics, or handling contact lenses in the laboratory, and attention to environmental decontamination.
This chapter explores the opportunity for additional multifunctional nail cosmetics by first reviewing the structure and chemistry of a normal nail and then comparing the needs of this structure with the opportunity presented in each nail care product category. Since the basic structure of the nail is made up of cells that are fully keratinized, opportunities are explored to improve the durability of the nail by utilizing elements of nail chemistry amenable to treatment by cosmetic ingredients. In most cases, since one element of most nail cosmetics is either decorative or totally utilitarian, a multifunctional product will result. Examples of existing products that provide novel multifunctionality will be given when useful. ural nails so uncertain that nail salons providing application of various artificial nails have become ubiquitous on the American landscape. Most shopping malls have several nail salons specializing in the application and maintenance of these products. Needless to...
Annatto is native to the Western Hemisphere and is the source of an edible red dye. It is used as colouring for a number of foods eg. yellow colouring for butter and margarine orange colouring for cheeses and red colouring of the flesh of some fish. It is also used in cosmetics. The active principle is bixin and nor-bixin (Figure 3), which are extracted from the crushed seeds with hot water. Bixin is the cis form of a mono-methyl ether of a carotenoid, carboxylic acid.
Where two materials with very different susceptibilities are closely adjacent, there may be severe distortion of the magnetic field, causing artefactual loss or exaggeration of the magnetic resonance signal. This is clearly seen in an image acquired with a metallic clip placed close to the scalp ( Plate.7). Ferromagnetic (highly paramagnetic) materials that may cause artefacts include metallic dental fillings and plates, hairgrips, ear or nose rings, and even some cosmetics. A less obvious form of susceptibility artefact arises if more (diamagnetic) tissue is situated at one end of the image field of view than the other. A field gradient is set up across the image resulting in signal loss. This is termed bulk susceptibility artefact and is often seen in images of both the head and neck ( Plate. . 7).
Form a large percentage of the produced CNT, and there will normally be some attempt to remove it. The form of the support is typically as a finely divided powder possibly a so-called nanopowder. The large surface area of the support is exploited to promote the synthesis. The chemical makeup of the support is usually some type of silicate or oxide it must survive the harsh reaction conditions required for CVD, and should not hinder the CVD process. Removal of the support can be made difficult if carbon is deposited directly onto the support causing it to become encased and protected to some extent.
Foreign material either inside or outside the patient can also contribute to signal and image distortion owing to the susceptibility phenomenon, whereby a material is partially magnetized when placed within a magnetic field. These include metallic objects, dental ware, cosmetics that contain ferromagnetic material, tattoos, bullets, or medical devices (Figs. 57-59). MR-compatible materials may torque or heat up during scanning, rendering them unsafe even if they do not cause significant distortion of the image. It is therefore imperative
This is the first online inventory of nanotechnology consumer products and contains some 212 manufacturer-identified nanoproducts. The inventory can be accessed online at www.nanoproject.org consumerproducts and at least some of the products and applications described here are listed in this inventory. Others include reinforced tennis, squash and badminton racquets containing carbon nanotubes, cultured diamonds, non dirtying clothes, razors, automotive and other coatings, cosmetics, microprocessors, golf balls, silver colloids and photographic paper.
Pigmented lakes are the oldest class of organic pigments, although strictly they are not entirely organic, as they result from the precipitation of an organic dye onto an inorganic substrate (most often alumina hydrate). The name lake arose because the first organic pigment to be absorbed on an inorganic substrate was obtained from resin of the lac insect (Laccifer lacca). The first synthetic dyes used in lake production were pigment scarlet and xylidine ponceau. After the 1938 Enactment, only certified colorants were approved for use in foods, drugs, and cosmetics (FD&C). By then, 18 colors had been approved for use in foods, with the introduction of orange SS and the red XO. These pigments were designed as FD&C colorants (certifiable colorants used to pigment food, drugs, and cosmetics) and only coal tar derivatives were permitted.3
Modified forms of titanium dioxide have also found markets. Oxonica has developed and is selling a manganese-doped titanium dioxide that exhibits significantly enhanced UVA absorption and minimises the generation of free radicals resulting from the absorption of UV light by the titanium dioxide.47 49 This product is already being used commercially in sunscreens and cosmetics and is being evaluated for applications in coatings and plastics. 3.4.3 Aluminium Oxide. Nanoparticulate aluminium oxide has been produced in platelet form and has found use in cosmetics. The benefits are achieved through a uniform platelet morphology that provides superior transparency and soft focus properties.57 Fumed silica has a chain-like particle morphology. In liquids, the chains bond together via weak hydrogen bonds forming a three-dimensional network, trapping liquid and effectively increasing viscosity. The effect of the fumed silica can be negated by the application of a shear force, e.g. by mixing or...
Many people with a family history of genetic disease seek genetic screening before having children. Genetic screening is an examination of a person's genetic makeup. It may involve karyotypes, blood tests for certain proteins, or direct tests of DNA. Physicians can now also detect more than 200 genetic disorders in the fetus. The technique called amniocentesis (AM-nee-oh-sen-TEE-sis), shown in Figure 12-14, allows a physician to remove some amniotic fluid from the amnion, the sac that surrounds the fetus, between the 14th and 16th week of pregnancy. Geneticists can analyze fetal cells for genetic disease by examining chromosomes and proteins in the fluid.
Amazingly, about 98 percent of our genetic makeup does not code for any protein. The regions of DNA that do not code for proteins are called noncoding DNA. Noncoding DNA contains many length polymorphisms, or variations in the length of the DNA molecule between known genes. Some length polymorphisms in noncoding regions come from short, repeating sequences of DNA. For example, a repeating nucleotide sequence might be CACACA, and so on. These sequences can repeat a few or many times in tandem (one behind another) and so are called variable number tandem repeats (VNTR). The number of tandem repeats at specific places (loci) in DNA varies among individuals. For each of the many VNTR loci in a person's DNA, he or she will have a certain number of repeats. Geneticists have calculated how frequently VNTR used in DNA identification occur in the general population. With these numbers, they can determine how rare a particular DNA profile is.
Due to their nature and makeup, artificial tears and lubricating ointments are free of any adverse effects, with the exception of transient blurring and preservative toxicity. Artificial tears and ointments should not be used with contact lenses in place. Only recommended rewetting and contact lens solutions should be used.
The fourth requirement of genetic equilibrium is random matings, without regard to genetic makeup. However, many species do not mate randomly. Mate selection is often influenced by geographic proximity, which can result in mates with some degree of kinship. Matings of related individuals can amplify certain traits and can result in offspring with disorders caused by recessive genes, which, although rare, may be present in the genomes of related individuals.
Archaea are not like bacteria in many ways. Archaea differ in the makeup of their cell walls. They also differ in their membrane lipids and in their genetics and metabolism. For example, archaeal cell walls do not have peptidoglycan (PEP-ti-doh-GLIE-KAN), a protein-carbohydrate compound found in bacterial cell walls. Archaeal cell walls have different amino acids than bacterial cell walls do. Archaea also have different types of lipids in their cell membranes. Archaea are like eukaryotic cells in that archaeal genes have introns, portions of DNA that do not code for amino acids and that are transcribed into RNA but are removed before being translated into proteins.
As you learned in Chapter 6, red algae are used to make agar. Agar is the culture medium that is extracted from the cell wall of red algae and is used to grow bacteria. Red algae are also used as a moisture-preserving agent in cosmetics and baked goods. Red algae are used as a setting agent for jellies and desserts.
Often failed to confirm any specific relationship to demyeli-nating diseases or a role in their pathophysiology. Identifying the role that putative blocking factors play in MS and other inflammatory diseases is difficult because these disorders alter the intrinsic properties of axonal conduction in complex ways. The architecture and molecular makeup of demyelinated axons are distinctly different from those of normal axons thus the sensitivity of conduction in these axons to specific factors can be difficult to predict using experimental systems. Despite decades of research into neu-roelectric blocking factors, their roles, if any, in producing rapid changes in neurologic status associated with demyeli-nating diseases remain unclear.
We reported two decades ago that biomolecules and molecular assemblages such as membranes and proteins can be stabilized in the dry state in the presence of a sugar found at high concentrations in many anhydrobiotic organisms, trehalose.1 We also showed that trehalose was clearly superior to other sugars in this regard.2 This effect seemed so clear it quickly led to wide-spread, and often uncritical, use of the sugar for preservation and other purposes. In fact, an array of applications for trehalose have been reported, ranging from stabilization of vaccines and liposomes to hypothermic storage of human organs.3 Other workers showed that it might even be efficacious in treatment of dry eye syndrome or dry skin in humans.4'5 Trehalose is prominendy listed as an ingredient in cosmetics, apparendy because it is reputed to inhibit oxidation of certain fatty acids in vitro that might be related to body odor.6 Trehalose has been shown by several groups to suppress free radical damage,...
Contact dermatitis, also called exogenous dermatitis, is caused by chemical or plant irritation and is characterized by a skin rash with itching, swelling, blistering, oozing, or scaling at the affected skin sites. The chemical contact may include cosmetics, cleansing products (soaps and detergents), perfume, clothing, dyes, and topical drugs. Plant contacts include poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac.
Although everyone needs the same nutrients, each individual is different in his or her genetic and physiological makeup and therefore individual quantitative nutritional needs differ. Prevention is the wisest strategy in keeping healthy by getting periodic health checks, eating a nutrient-dense diet, exercising on a regular basis, and reducing or managing stress.
Usually, the body's immune system recognizes its self-antigens and deletes clones of cells that would respond and attack its own tissues. A growing number of diseases are suspected of being caused by an autoimmune process, however, meaning that the immune system of the body is responding to the tissues of the body as if they are foreign. Some of these diseases are listed in table 18.4. Susceptibility to many of them is influenced by the major histocompatibility makeup of the patient, and so, not surprisingly, they often occur in the same family. The table notes some of the diseases in which an association with MHC genes (such as DR genes) has been found. negative selection, p. 413
Allergens can enter the body in numerous ways. They can be taken in by the mucous membranes of the nose from pollen or dust, absorbed through the intestinal tract from foods, bacteria, molds or drugs they may be injected from drugs or vaccines or they can enter through the skin from cosmetics, insect bites, or poison oak or ivy. (For spider bites, apply a comfrey poultice or compress for stings and bites in general, apply a cold compress.)
As with all psychoactive drugs the adverse effects result from the interaction between the individual's genetic and physiological makeup, the dose and route of administration, other consumed drugs, the cognitive set, and the environmental setting. Adverse effects include the following
Humans make daily use of protists and their byproducts. Humans eat protists directly and use them as food additives, as fertilizers, and in cosmetics and medicines. The cell walls of most brown algae, especially large kelps, contain alginic acid. Alginic acid is a source of a commercially important polysaccharide called alginate. Alginate is used in cosmetics and various drugs and as a stabilizer in ice cream and salad dressings. Alginate is also used in textiles, water-soluble medical dressings for burns, and inks. Certain species of red algae have cell walls that are coated with a sticky substance called carrageenan (KAR-uh-GEEN-uhn). Carrageenan is a polysaccharide that is used to control the texture of many commercial and food products. It is used in the production of cosmetics, gelatin capsules, and some types of cheese.
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