Anatomic Abnormalities

MR lymphangiography has been tested in a variety of animal models of diseases. For instance, MR lymphangiography with Gd-dendrimer contrast agents was able to depict the location of intranodal lymphomatous infiltration similarly to direct X-ray lymphangiography (Figure 2.6). Although involvement of lymphoma rarely blocked the lymphatic flow, lymph node metastasis of solid cancers blocked the lymphatic flow. When this occurred, MR lymphangiography could detect the collateral lymphatic flow bypassing the blocked lymph node (Figure 2.7) (Kobayashi et al., 2003a). In addition, this method was also able to distinguish between the appearance of infection-induced hyperplasia of lymphocytes within lymph nodes from either chronic lymphoproliferative or neoplastic conditions (Kobayashi et al., 2003c). The enhanced resolution of this method might have wide applicability to the study of immunology and cancer in both experimental animal models and clinical medicine. Additionally, since a very small dose of the agent allowed visualization of the entire deep lymphatic system, this result suggests that this application might be feasible for human use.

normal lymphoma

Figure 2.6. Whole body 3D-MR lymphangiography (MIP) of a normal or an IL-15 transgenic, lymphoproliferative/lymphoma model mouse obtained with G8 contrast agents (arrows indicate abnormal lymph nodes swelling).

h n normal lymphoma

Figure 2.6. Whole body 3D-MR lymphangiography (MIP) of a normal or an IL-15 transgenic, lymphoproliferative/lymphoma model mouse obtained with G8 contrast agents (arrows indicate abnormal lymph nodes swelling).

Figure 2.7. Whole body 3D-micro-MR lymphangiography of mice with lymph node metastasis of MC-38 cells injected with G8 agent. Large inguinal and abdominal tumors (asterisks) accompanied by a normal left inguinal lymph node (long arrow) are seen. In addition, dilated lymphatic vessels surrounding the tumor and collateral lymphatic vessels, which communicate with the thoracic duct via the axillary lymph node, are depicted (arrowheads).

Figure 2.7. Whole body 3D-micro-MR lymphangiography of mice with lymph node metastasis of MC-38 cells injected with G8 agent. Large inguinal and abdominal tumors (asterisks) accompanied by a normal left inguinal lymph node (long arrow) are seen. In addition, dilated lymphatic vessels surrounding the tumor and collateral lymphatic vessels, which communicate with the thoracic duct via the axillary lymph node, are depicted (arrowheads).

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