Imaging-guided chest drainage procedures can be used to guide treatment of simple or complicated pleural effusions, pneumothoraces, or mediastinal fluid collections. While pleural collections have been conventionally treated with closed-tube thoracostomy, imaging-guided treatment has been more successful in loculated pleural collections that have septations or substantial fibrinous content. Drainage tubes used in imaging-assisted guidance are generally more easily manipulated, smaller in caliber, and better tolerated . One disadvantage of these tubes is that their smaller size predisposes to obstruction of the tube by debris. Techniques for imaging-guided insertion include fluoroscopy, ultrasound, and CT [18-22].
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