Infants present with diffusely abnormal EEGs, tonic clonic convulsions, myoclonic jerks and mental retardation following perinatal trauma or asphyxia. The seizures are sometimes called infantile spasms and the abnormal EEG pattern between events - hypsarrhythmia. Mortality or severe disability is high.
This similar syndrome presents later between 1-7 years of age. The response to anticonvulsant treatment and the degree of retardation is variable. The condition is associated with a large number of disorders including hypoxia, intracranial haemorrhage, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus infection and tuberous sclerosis.
The REFLEX EPILEPSIES are a rare group of seizure disorders in which tonic/clonic or complex partial seizures are evoked by sensory stimuli. A primary generalised seizure induced by photic stimulation may be regarded as a reflex epilepsy, but the term is usually reserved for:
1. Musicogenic epilepsy in which certain musical themes or tones 'trigger' seizures.
2. Reading epilepsy in which reading a passage will evoke involuntary jaw movements followed by a seizure. 94 3. Arithmetical epilepsy in which performing calculations will 'trigger' seizures.
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