Movement disorders extrapyramidal system

- Thalamus

Caudate nucleus (head)

The control of voluntary movement is effected by the interaction of the pyramidal, cerebellar and extrapyramidal systems interconnecting with each other as well as projecting to the anterior horn region or cranial nerve motor nuclei.

- Thalamus

\ Putamen 1 Lentiform Globus pallidus J nucleus

Interconnections of the deep nuclei

The connections between components of the extrapyramidal system and other parts of the brain are complex. However, certain simple observations can be made:

a - The thalamus plays a vital role in projecting information from the basal nuclei and cerebellum to the motor cortex via thalamocortical pathways and exerts an influence on the corticospinal pathway at its origin.

b - The cortical neurons project to the thalamus thus providing a feedback loop between these structures.

c - Outflow is solely through the corticobulbar and corticospinal (pyramidal) pathways.

The extrapyramidal system consists of paired subcortical masses or nuclei of grey matter basal ganglia

Caudate nucleus (head)

Subthalamic nuclei v Substantia nigra

Section (coronal) of hemisphere showing deep nuclei of extrapyramidal system I

Caudate nucleus (tail)

The caudate nucleus and putamen are collectively referred to as the STRIATUM.

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