Higher Cortical Function Memory

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Normal memory involves the recognition, registering and cataloguing of a stimulus -acquisition, as well as the skill of appropriate recall - retrieval.

Verbal memory: Visual memory: Short term memory: Long term memory: Semantic memory:

refers to material presented in the verbal form.

denotes material presented without words or verbal meditation.

immediate recall of a short message.

retrieval of recent or remote events.

refers to long established factual knowledge.

Disordered memory may be confused with disturbances of attention, motivation and concentration and requires detailed neuropsychological examination to properly assess.

THE ANATOMICAL BASIS OF MEMORY The structures of the limbic system involved in the memory process are inferred from the pathological examination of diseases that disorder function. The hippocampus, a deep structure in the temporal lobe, ridges the floor of the lateral ventricle. Fimbriae of the hippocampus connect this structure to the fornix. There appears to be a loop from hippocampus fornix —> mamillary body thalamus -> cingulate gyrus -> back to hippocampus.

Mamillothalamic tract

Anterior nucleus of thalamus

Mamillary body

Mamillothalamic tract

Hippocampus

Anterior nucleus of thalamus

Mamillary body

Hippocampus

Mamillary bodies

Thalamus

Orbito-frontal cortex

Medial temporal cortex/ hippocampus

Fornix

Korsakoff s

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Head trauma

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Stroke

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Encephalitis

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Anoxia

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Metabolic

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Temporal lobectomy

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3rd ventricular operations

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TESTS OF MEMORY (see examination, page 8)

These aim to distinguish loss of immediate, recent or remote memory.

Disorders may be further classified into those which affect memories established before the injury or damage - RETROGRADE AMNESIA - and those which affect memory of events following the injury or damage - ANTEROGRADE or POST-TRAUMATIC AMNESIA.

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