Examination Trunk



Test pin prick and light touch in dermatome distribution as for the upper limbs.

Levels to remember: T5 - at nipple

T10 - at umbilicus T12 - at inguinal ligament. Abdominal reflexes: T7 - T12 roots. Stroke or lightly scratch the skin towards the umbilicus in each quadrant in turn. Look for abdominal muscle contraction and note if absent or impaired. (N.B. Reflexes may be absent in obesity, after pregnancy, or after abdominal operations.)

Cremasteric reflex: LI root. Scratch inner thigh. Observe contraction of cremasteric muscle causing testicular elevation.

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