Acute Viral Encephalitis

Viral infection causes neuronal and glial damage with associated inflammation and oedema. Viral encephalitis is a worldwide disorder with the highest incidence in the tropics. Common causal viruses:

World-wide:

- Mumps

- Herpes simplex

- Varicella zoster

- Epstein-Barr

- Arboviruses

Rare forms in specific areas:

Western equine - (vector) mosquito - USA

- (vector) mosquito - Africa/India

- (vector) tick - eastern Europe

West Nile

Russian spring/summer

Encephalitis following childhood infections - measles, varicella, rubella - is presumed to be postinfectious and not due to direct viral invasion, though the measles virus has occasionally been isolated from the brain.

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