of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HGSIL) or invasive cancer; therefore, persistent inflammation is an indication for colposcopy.
7. Hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis. Parakeratosis is defined as dense nuclei within a keratin layer. When no nuclei are present, the cells are designated hyperkeratotic. Parakeratosis and hyperkeratosis occur as a reaction to physical, chemical, or inflammatory trauma, and it may clinically appear as leukoplakia. Benign-appearing parakeratosis or hyperkeratosis requires only a repeat Pap test in 6 months. When this finding persists, colposcopy is indicated.
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