Pathophysiology

A. Prostatic stromal tissue is controlled by the adrenergic nervous system. Alpha-1 receptors control 80% of the activity of prostatic smooth muscle cells, causing contraction of the prostate.

B. Many men with palpably enlarged prostates are not symptomatic, while some patients with small prostates have significant voiding symptoms or urinary retention.

C. Obstruction forces the bladder to generate higher pressures than normal to achieve micturition. Increased muscle mass in the bladder leads to reduced bladder elasticity and compliance, which manifests as a reduction in bladder capacity.

D. If the obstruction is not relieved, bladder failure will result. This process produces the classic obstructive voiding symptoms of hesitancy, intermittency, decreased force of the stream, postvoid dribbling, and a feeling of incomplete bladder emptying.

Breaking Bulimia

Breaking Bulimia

We have all been there: turning to the refrigerator if feeling lonely or bored or indulging in seconds or thirds if strained. But if you suffer from bulimia, the from time to time urge to overeat is more like an obsession.

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