Pathophysiology of amenorrhea

A. Amenorrhea may be caused by failure of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, by absence of end organs, or by obstruction of the outflow tract.

B. Menses usually occur at intervals of 28 (±3) days, with a normal range of 18-40 days.

C. Amenorrhea is defined as the absence of menstruation for 3 or more months in a women with past menses (secondary amenorrhea) or the absence of menarche by age 16 in girls who have never menstruated (primary amenorrhea). Pregnancy is the most common cause of amenorrhea.

Breaking Bulimia

Breaking Bulimia

We have all been there: turning to the refrigerator if feeling lonely or bored or indulging in seconds or thirds if strained. But if you suffer from bulimia, the from time to time urge to overeat is more like an obsession.

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