B. Hoarseness, nocturnal cough, and wheezing may be caused by chronic reflux, and asthma may be exacerbated by GERD.
C. Chronic reflux is associated with Barrett's esophagus (columnar metaplasia of esophageal mucosa). This complication may predispose to esophageal adenocarcinoma.
D. GERD is caused by decreased lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure. Sphincter tone can be impaired by consumption of fatty foods and anticholinergic medications.
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Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the medical term for what we know as acid reflux. Acid reflux occurs when the stomach releases its liquid back into the esophagus, causing inflammation and damage to the esophageal lining. The regurgitated acid most often consists of a few compoundsbr acid, bile, and pepsin.