B. Hoarseness, nocturnal cough, and wheezing may be caused by chronic reflux, and asthma may be exacerbated by GERD.
C. Chronic reflux is associated with Barrett's esophagus (columnar metaplasia of esophageal mucosa). This complication may predispose to esophageal adenocarcinoma.
D. GERD is caused by decreased lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure. Sphincter tone can be impaired by consumption of fatty foods and anticholinergic medications.
Was this article helpful?